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What are the Four Periods of the History of Philosophy?

  1. Ancient
  2. Medieval
  3. Modern
  4. Contemporary


What are some major figures of the Ancient period?

  1. The Pre-Socratics
  2. Socrates
  3. Plato
  4. Aristotle
  5. Stoics
  6. St. Augustine


Mention some examples of the Pre-Socratic school?

  1. The Milesians
  2. Pythagoras
  3. Xenophanes
  4. Anaxagoras
  5. Sophists


What is important about the Milesians?

  • They were the first people to give non-religious answers to their questions about nature


What is Xenophanes's contribution to Philosophy?

  1. Epistemology
  2. Rational Theology
    • "Horses would draw the gods as horses"


What are the characteristics of the Sophists?

  1. Itinerant teachers
    • Taught people how to argue by making their argument stronger than it actually was


What is the time frame of Ancient Philosophy?

From 6th century BCE to 4th century BCE

  • with the exception of Stoics and Augustine


What is the time frame of Medieval Philosophy?

Most notably from 11th century to 14th century CE


What are the major figures of Medieval Philosophy?

Because Medieval Philosophy was dominated by the Catholic church, they were mostly Christian philosophers

  1. St. Anselm
  2. St. Thomas Aquinas
  3. William of Ockham
  4. Francis Bacon
  5. Thomas Hobbes
  6. Jewish and Muslims Philosophers


What was one of St. Anselm's contributions to Philosophy?

  • Ontological Argument


What was one of St. Thomas Aquinas's contribution to Philosophy?

  • Five Ways (arguments for God's existence)


What was one of William of Ockham's contribution to Philosophy?

  1. Ockham's Razor
    • All things being equal, the simpler explanation is more likely to be the correct one.


What was one of Francis's Bacon contribution to Philosophy?

  1. Induction
  2. Scientific Reasoning and Method


What was one of Thomas Hobbes' contribution to Philosophy?

  • Leviathan
    • major work of the ideal state


What is the time frame of Modern Philosophy?

Especially 17th-18th century


What was one major question in Modern Philosophy and how it is divided?

  • The nature of knowledge and how knowledge is aquired.
  • Divided in three schools:
    1. Rationalism
      • use of reason, strict deduction
      • innate ideas
    2. Empiricism
      • through experience
      • tabula rasa
    3. Idealism


What are some major figures of the Rationalist schools?

  1. Rene Descartes
  2. Benedictus Spinoza
  3. Gottfried Leibniz


What are some major figures of the Empiricist school?

  1. John Locke
  2. Bishop Berkeley
  3. David Hume


What are some major figures of the Idealist school?

  1. Immanuel Kant
  2. G.W.F. Hegel


What is the time frame of Contemporary Philosophy?

19th century - present


In what two parts is Contemporary Philosophy divided?

  1. Continental Philosophy - European Continent
  2. Anglo-American (Analytic) Philosophy - England and US


What are some major figures and "isms" of Continental Philosophy?

  1. Kierkegaard
  2. Karl Marx
  3. Nietzsche
  4. Heidegger
  5. Sartre
  6. Simone de Beauvior
  7. Neo-Marxism
  8. Deconstructionism
  9. Post-structuralism
  10. Feminism


What are some major figures of Anglo-American (Analytic) Philosophy?

  1. John Stuart Mill

  2. William James

  3. Bertrand Russell

  4. Wittgenstein

  5. Gilbert Ryle

  6. Karl Popper

  7. W.V.O. Quine

  8. John Searle


Who is Socrates?

  • Wrote nothing

  • Teacher of Plato

  • Disdain for empirical enquiry

  • Focused on universals

    • Justice

    • Goodness

    • Virtue

    • Improvement of the Soul

  • Father of Moral Philosophy


What is the Socratic Method (Dialectic)?

  • Method of discovering (“remembering”) a truth already within one’s examinee by skillful use of question and answers


Who was Plato?

  • Father of idealism, rationalism and social-political philosophy

  • Prolific writer

  • Founded The Academy

    • C385 BCE

    • Prototype of Western Universities

    • Quadrivium

      • Geometry

      • Mathematics

      • Astronomy

      • Harmony
    • Aristotle studied there for 20 yrs
  • Divine Illumination via dialectic