How would you recognise a typical Georgian building?
- 1714 - 1830 (up to 1837 classed as late Georgian)
- Square and symmetrically shaped internally and externally
- Houses often 3-storeys with a cellar visible below ground
- Slate tiled roof, hipped from all sides
- Parapet wall
- Chimneys located on both sides
- Brick/stone walls, or brick faced in stone
- Stone quoins on corners
- Embellished cornices and decorative mouldings
- Timber sash windows, often 6-paned towards top and 9 or 12-paned to main floors
- Panelled door with fan light to hallway
- No porch
How would you recognise a typical Regency building?
How would you recognise a typical Victorian building?
- 1837 - 1901
- Pitched slate roofs with gable ends
- Decorative finials (small carved ornaments on the points of ridges and gable ends)
- Decorative barge boards on gable ends
- Patterned brickwork, often Flemish bond
- Bay and sash windows, often 6 and later 4-paned
- Stained glass
- Date stone above door
- Iron railings
- Outhouse toilet
- Terracotta ground floor tiles
- Fireplace in every room, often cast iron
- Narrow roads and no garages
How would you recognise a typical Edwardian building?
- 1901 - 1910 (generally considered to include up to 1914)
- Similar to Victorian but with some minor differences:
- Shorter in height
- Cellars and second floors less common
- Wider hallways
- Lighter and less ornate internally
What are the positives and negatives of concrete framed buildings?
- Affordable (compared to steel)
- Energy saving (less thermally conductive than steel)
- Fire resistant (does not require additional coatings/protection)
- Low maintenance
- Versatile (can be pre-cast or cast in-situ and moulded to almost any shape)
- Susceptible to concrete defects (i.e. workmanship issues)
- Time consuming (drying times etc.)
What is a portal frame and when is it used?
- Generally low-rise structures, comprising of columns and horizontal/pitched rafters, connected by moment-resisting connections
- Very efficient for enclosing large volumes
- Used often for industrial, storage, retail, agricultural and commercial applications
What are the positives and negatives of steel framed buildings?
- Faster construction
- Lighter weight than concrete
- Can span further distances
- Can be recycled
- Increased cost
- Thermally inefficient (conduct heat readily)
- Need additional fire protection (intumescent coatings, over-boarding etc.)
- Can rust if not adequately protected
- Transportation to and manoeuvring around site may be difficult
What factors should be used to choose between concrete or steel frame?
- Cost - concrete generally cheaper
- Weight - concrete generally heavier
- Thermal efficiency - concrete less conductive
- Span - steel can span further
- Maintenance - concrete generally lower maintenance
- Shape - concrete more versatile
What are the positives and negatives of timber framed buildings?
- Lighter - easier to handle
- Easy to construct/adapt
- Thermal qualities
- Susceptible to rot/infestation
- Susceptible to fire (although this is not universally accepted)
- Cannot span as far as reinforced concrete/steel
What are the advantages and disadvantages of CLASP construction?
What is meant by 'modern methods of construction'?
Term used to describe a range of processes and technologies which involves prefabrication and off-site assembly
Name the main techniques used for modern methods of construction.
- Volumetric - three-dimensional units produced in a factory, fully fitted out before being transported to site and stacked onto prepared foundations
- Panelised - flat panel units built in a factory and transported to site for assembly into a three-dimensional structure or to fit within an existing structure
- Hybrid - volumetric units integrated with panelised systems
What are the advantages and disadvantages of modern methods of construction?
- Time - reduced on-site construction time
- Programme - increased predictability due to reduced external factors (e.g. weather)
- Quality - increased quality control with defects eliminated prior to completion
- Accuracy - use of templates produced using CAD systems
- Cost - repeated use of moulds through standardisation reduces formwork materials, preliminaries, site storage and on-site facilities
- Safety - safer working environment under factory conditions
- Waste - easier to manage in factory conditions and reduced off-cuts
- Local disruption - less environmental impacts such as dust and noise pollution
- Sustainability - less carbon intensive than some traditional forms of construction
- Size of deliverable elements restricted to route to / constraints on site
- Design errors more difficult to resolve
- Bricks and mortar have reduced maintenance costs
- Future alterations may be more difficult than in traditional construction
What is a cob building?
- A structure made from cob, which is a natural building material made from subsoil, water and some kind of fibrous organic material (usually straw)
- Sometimes lime can be used, as well as added extra sand or clay, to make the mixture of materials right for construction
Describe the construction of the building envelope on one of your projects.
What would you consider when determining whether a building is old?
- Desktop research - records of when built
- Solid walls
- Cast iron downpipes - look at joints (older buildings will not have welded joints)
- Tall chimneys
- Fireplace in each room
- Lath and plaster wall finish
- Texture of walls - newer buildings tend to be smoother
- Storage for coal
From a technology point of view, explain the factors that you would consider when comparing a steel and concrete frame solution for a building.
From a technology point of view, explain the factors that you would consider when comparing a pre-cast and an insitu concrete frame solution for a building?