XXI - Musculoskeletal System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in XXI - Musculoskeletal System Deck (141)
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121

Most common joints affected in mycobacterial arthritis

In descending order: Hips, knees, and ankles.(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1215

122

Genetic disorder resulting from complete absence of HGPRT, produced by mutation in the HPRT gene causing hyeruricemia.

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1215

123

Presents with joint pain associated with localized hyperemia, warmth, usually in the first metatasophalangeal joint. Associated with excessive alcohol intake. Radiographs of chronic condition show characteristic juxta-articular erosion and loss of joint space.

Gouty arthritis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1216

124

Cytokine that is mainly implicated in the pathogenesis of RA.

TNF(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1217

125

The fundamental abnormality in this disorder is too little bone resulting in extreme skeletal fragility. Other findings include blue sclerae, hearing loss, and dental imperfections.

Ostegenesis Impefecta(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1185

126

Also known as marble bone disease and Albers-Schonberg disease

Osteopetrosis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1186

127

Morphology: Erlenmeyer flask deformity (end of long bones are bulbous), bones lack a medullary canal, neural foramina are small, primary spongiosa persists, deposited bone is not remodeled and tends to be woven.

Osteopetrosis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1186

128

First genetic disease treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Osteopetrosis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1187

129

Effect of decreased estrogen level after menopause

Increase bone resorption (and formation)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1189

130

Hallmark of osteoporosis

Histologically normal bone that is decreased in quantity(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed, p 1189

131

Presents with pain due to microfracture or bone overgrowth, and enlargement of craniofacial skeleton pproducing leontiasis ossea, inability to hold the head erect. May also cause chalk-stick type fractures and arteriovenous shunt. Xray: enlarged, coarsened cortices and cancelous bone.

Paget Disease (Osteitis Deformans) (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1191

132

Most dreaded complication of Paget disease

Sarcoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 11911

133

The fundamental defect in these disorders is an impairment of mineralization and a resultant accumulation of unmineralized matrix due to vitamin D deficiency or its abnormal metabolism.

Rickets(children) and Osteomalacia(adult)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1191

134

Most common cause of osteomyelitis.

S. aureus(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1195

135

Most common cause of osteomyelitis in individuals with sickle cell disease.

Salmonella(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1195

136

Characteristic radiographic findings of a lytic focus of bone destrucrion surrounded by a zone of sclerosis

Osteomyelitis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1196

137

Presents with painful, progressively enlarging masses usually in the metaphyseal region of the extremities; sudden fracture; Xray: large destructive, mixed lytic and blastic mass with infiltrative margins, Codman triangle

Osteosarcoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1198

138

The most common benign bone tumor

Osteochondroma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1200

139

A 17 year old presents with a painfull swelling of the right knee. Radiographs show a lytic and blastic mass in the distal femur, with lifting of the surrounding periosteum. Which of the following is consistent with the diagnosis of osteosarcoma? (A) malignant mesenchymal cells in a chondromyxoid stroma (B) round, blue cells in sheets, with scant clear cytoplasm (C) multinucleated giant cells and a background of mononuclear cells (D) malignant mesenchymal cells with osteoid formation

malignant mesenchymal cells with osteoid formation (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology,8th ed., p 813

140

A 42 year old male has repeated bouts of inflammation of his big toe, associated with drinking alcohol and cold weather. There is a knobby, nodular swelling around the involved joint. There are similar nodules in some of his fingertips and on his earlobe. If one of these nodules is biopsied, it would likely show (A) curved trabeculae of woven bone and surrounding fibrous tissue (B) marked proliferation of the synovium with underlying dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate (C) aggregate of amorphous material surrounded by reactive fibroblasts, lymphocytes, macrophages, and foreign-body giant cells (D) granulomas with epithelioid macrophages, giant cells with nuclei in a horeshoe configuration, and central necrosis

aggregate of amorphous material surrounded by reactive fibroblasts, lymphocytes, macrophages, and foreign-body giant cells (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology,8th ed., p 820-821

141

A 7 year old female is observed to have a fleshy, grape-like mass protruding from her vagina. A biopsy showed large round cells with abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasm. Some of the cells are elongated. The tumor (A) is commonly associated with chromosomal translocations (B) common in childhood and adolescence (C) may be positive for desmin and muscle-specific actin (D) all of the above

all of the above (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology,8th ed., p831

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