XXI - Musculoskeletal System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in XXI - Musculoskeletal System Deck (141)
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31

Refers to multiple different renal complications associated with urate deposition, variously forming medullary tophi, intratubular precipitations, or free uric acid crystals and renal calculi.

Gouty nephropathy(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology,8th ed., p821

32

Also known as chondrocalcinosis or-more formally-calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition disease. The crystals are weakly birefringent, rhomboid in shape with blunted ends.

Pseudogout (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology,8th ed., p823

33

Main causative agent of suppurative arthritis in late adolescence and young adulthood.

Neisseria gonorrhea(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology,8th ed., p824

34

Individuals with sickle cell disease are prone to developing osteomyelitis and suppurative arthritis caused by this agent.

Salmonella(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology,8th ed., p824

35

Arthritis caused by infection with the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, transmitted by deer ticks of the Ixodes ricinus complex.

Lyme arthritis (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology,8th ed., p824

36

A small (

Ganglion cyst(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology,8th ed., p825

37

The most severe and the most common form of muscular dystrophy. Characterized by marked variation in muscle fiber size, caused by concomitant myofiber hypertrophy and atrophy. The definitive diagnosis is based on the demonstration of abnormal staining for "dystrophin" in immunohistochemical preparations.

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology,8th ed., p825

38

This can present as either acute or chronic proximal muscle weakness, and can precede the onset of other signs of thyroid dysfunction. Findings include myofiber necrosis, regeneration, and interstitial lymphocytes.

Thyrotoxic myopathy (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology,8th ed., p830

39

This can occur with binge drinking, where there is an acute toxic rhabdomyolysis with accompanying myoglobinuria that can cause renal failure. On histology, there is myocyte swelling and necrosis, myophagocytosis, and regeneration.

Ethanol myopathy (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology,8th ed., p830

40

An autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction characterized by muscle weakness which first manifests in the extraocular muscles. Caused by circulating antibodies to the skeletal muscle acetylcholine receptors (AChRs).

Myasthenia gravis (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology,8th ed., p830

41

This syndrome characteristically develops as a paraneoplastic process most commonly in the setting of small-cell lung carcinoma. Presents with muscle weakness secondary to decreased vesicle release in response to presynaptic action potential.

Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology,8th ed., p830

42

Soft tissue tumor which presents as soft, gelatinous, grapelike masses on the surfaces of the bladder or vagina.

Sarcoma botryoides(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology,8th ed., p830

43

It is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood and adolescence, usually appearing before age 20.

Rhabdomyosarcoma (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology,8th ed., p831

44

Diagnostic cell in rhabdomyosarcoma, characterized as round or elongated cells that may contain cross-striations visible by light microscopy.

Tadpole or strap cells(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology,8th ed., p831

45

Soft, yellow, well-encapsulated masses of mature adipocytes; they can vary considerably in size. Histologically, they consist of mature white fat cells with no pleomorphism

Lipoma (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology,8th ed., p832

46

Malignant neoplasms of adipocytes, which usually present as relatively well-circumscribed lesions. Diagnostic feature are lipoblasta, similar to fetal fat cells, with cytoplasmic lipid vacuoles that scallop the nucleus.

Liposarcomas (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology,8th ed., p833

47

A self-limited, reactive fibroblastic proliferation that typically occurs in adults on the volar aspect of the forearm. Consists of plump, randomly arranged, immature-appearing fibroblasts in an abundant myxoid stroma. Not a true tumor.

Nodular Fasciitis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology,8th ed., p833

48

This develops in the proximal muscles of the extremities in athletic adolescents and young adults after trauma. Distinguished from other fibroblastic proliferations by the presence of metaplastic bone. Excision is curative.

Myositis Ossificans (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology,8th ed., p833

49

Malignant neoplasms composed of fibroblasts. These are soft unencapsulated, infiltrative masses frequently with areas of hemorrhage and necrosis. Malignant spindle cells are arranged in a "herringbone pattern".

Fibrosarcoma (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology,8th ed., p834

50

These are relatively common benign lesions in adults presenting as circumscribed, small (

Benign Fibrous Histiocytoma (Dermatofibroma) (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology,8th ed., p834

51

A variety of soft tissue sarcomas Characterized by considerable cytologic pleomorphism, the presence of bizarre multinucleate cells, and "storiform" architecture .

Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology,8th ed., p834

52

Benign smooth muscle tumors described as well-circumscribed neoplasms that can arise from smooth muscle cells anywhere in the body, but are encountered most commonly in the uterus.

Leiomyoma (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology,8th ed., p835

53

These commonly present as firm, painless masses of the skin, deep soft tissues of the extermities and retroperitoneum. Histologically, they show spindle cells with cigar-shaped nuclei arranged in interweaving fascicles.

Leiomyosarcoma (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology,8th ed., p835

54

What is the mineral that gives bone strength and hardness and is the storehouse for 99% of the body's calcium, 85% of the body's phosphorous, and 65% of the body's sodium and magnesium?

Calcium Hydroxyapatite (TOPNOTCH)

55

Of all the proteins in the bone matrix, which one is unique to the bone?

Osteocalcin (TOPNOTCH)

56

Identify the bone cell: responsible for bone resorption

Osteoclast (TOPNOTCH)

57

Identify the bone cell: most numerous than any other bone forming cell

Osteocytes (TOPNOTCH)

58

Identify the bone cell: initiate the process of mineralization and express cell surface receptors that bind many hormones

Osteoblasts (TOPNOTCH)

59

What is the functional unit of bone?

Osteoblast and Osteoclast act in coordination and are considered the functional unit of bone known as the Basic Multicellular Unit (TOPNOTCH)

60

In what part of the bone can you see the histological abnormalities seen in achondroplasia?

Growth plate (TOPNOTCH)

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