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Flashcards in XX - The Endocrine System Deck (166)
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121

Most sensitive sceening test for hypothyroidism

Serum TSH level(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1085

122

A middle aged-woman presents with painless enlargement of the thyroid that is symmetric and diffuse, with some symptoms of hypothyroidism. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Hashimoto's thyroiditis(TOPNOTCH)

123

It causes symmetric enlargement of the entire thyroid gland without producing nodularity. Patients are usually clinically euthyroid.

Diffuse nontoxic (simple) goiter (TOPNOTCH)

124

Patient presents with mass on the anterior neck and dysphagia. Thyroid is assymetrically enlarged. Thyroid functions tests are normal. Cut section showed irregular nodules containing brown, gelatinous colloid. The microscopic appearance showed colloid-rich follicles lined by flattened, inactive epithelium and areas of follicular hyperplasia. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Multinodular goiter(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1091

125

True or False. Nodules in males are more likely to be neoplastic than are those in females.

True(TOPNOTCH)

126

True or False. Solitary nodule are more likely to be neoplast than are multiple nodules.

True(TOPNOTCH)

127

True or False. Nodules in younger patients are more likely to be neoplastic than are those in older patients.

True(TOPNOTCH)

128

True or False. Functional nodules that take up radioactive iodine in imaging studies(hotnodules0 are much more likely to be benign than malignant.

True(TOPNOTCH)

129

What is the most common benign neoplasm of the thyroid?

Follicular adenoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1100

130

Patient presents with enlarged feet and hands, thickened and sausage-like fingers, jaw protrusion and broadening of the lower face, generalized muscle weakenss. The diagnosis of this condition relies on what elevated serum ___ and ___ levels.

GF and IGF-1(TOPNOTCH)

131

Development of large destructive pituitary adenoma after surgical removal of the adrenal gland. This condition occurs most often because of the inhibitory effect of adrenal corticosteroids.

Nelson syndrome(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1080

132

Presents with amenorrhea, galactorrhea, loss of libido and infertility.

Lactotroph adenoma(TOPNOTCH)

133

Most common form of clinically significant ischemic necrosis of the anterior pituitary. May present with amenorrhea ang infertility.

Sheehan syndrome(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1081

134

Presents with hyponatremia, cerebral edema, absence of peripheral edema due to ectopic ADH secretion by malignant neoplasm, drugs, and a variety of CNS disorders.

SIADH(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1082

135

May present with growth retardation in children, headache and visual disturbances. In adult, these neoplasm is thought to rise from vestigial remnant of Rathke pouch.

Craniopharyngoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed,. P. 1082

136

Histologic variant of craniopharyngioma most often observed in children

Adamantinomatous craniopharyngoma (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1082

137

Histologic variant of craniopharyngioma most often observed in adults

Papillary craniopharyngoma (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1082

138

Presents with rapidly enlarging bulky neck mass, dyspnea, dysphagia, hoarsenes, and cough. Histologic finding of pleomorphic giant cells, spindle cells or mixed. Highly fatal.

Anaplastic carcinoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1098

139

Amyloid deposits are characteristic of this histologic type of thyroid cancer.

Medullary cancer(TOPNOTCH)

140

Most common clinically significant congenital anomaly of the thyroid.

Thyroglossal duct or cyst (TOPNOTCH)

141

Most common cause primary hyperparathyroidism

Solitary parathyroid adenoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p.1101

142

The combination of increased osteoclast activity, peritrabecular fibrosis, and cystic brown tumors

von Recklinghausen disease of bone/osteitis fibrosa cystica(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1102

143

The most common mechanism through which osteolytic tumors induce hypercalcemia

Secretion of PTHrP(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1103

144

Classic findings of hypocalcemia on physical examination

Chvostek sign and Trosseau sign(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1105

145

The most frequent pattern in diabetic neuropathy

Distal symmetric polyneuropathy of the lower extremities(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1120

146

The most common cause of hypercotisolism

Exogenous administration of steroids(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1125

147

Most common adrenal finding in endogenous Cushing syndrome

Nodular hyperplasia(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1125

148

Presents with hypertension, weight gain, moon facies, truncal obesity, elevated urinary steroid secetion, low ACTH

Cushing syndrome caused by an adrenal tumor(TOPNOTCH)

149

Presents with signs and symptoms of elevated cortisol levels, with failure of low-dose and high-dose dexamethasone to suppress cortisol secretion

Ectopic ACTH secretion(e.g ACTH production by tumors)(TOPNOTCH)

150

Most common form of Cushing syndrome, ACTH levels are elevated and cannot be suppressed by administration of low dose of dexamethasone.

Pituitary Cushing syndrome(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1125

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