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Flashcards in XX - The Endocrine System Deck (166)
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These cysts are lined by ciliated cuboidal epithelium with occasional goblet cells and anterior pituitary cells, can accumulate proteinaceous fluid and expand, compromising the normal gland

Rathke Cleft Cyst (TOPNOTCH)


The craniopharyngomas are thought to arise from what structure?

Vestigial remnants of Rathke pouch (TOPNOTCH)


What is the earliest and most consistent feature of hyperthyroidism?

Cardiac manifestations (TOPNOTCH)


This condition presents with impaired developments of the skeletal system and central nervous system, manifested by severe mental retardation, short stature, coarse facial features, a protruding tongue, and umbilical hernia

Cretinism (TOPNOTCH)


These are epithelial cells with abudant eosinophilic, granular ctyoplasm seen in Hashimoto thyroiditis

Hurthle cells (TOPNOTCH)


What is the most important feature in making the distinction between a thyroid adenoma and a multinodular goiter?

In adenoma, the neoplastic cells are demarcated from the adjacent parenchyma by a well defined intact capsule. In multinodular goiters, they lack a well formed capsule (TOPNOTCH)


What is the hallmark of all follicular adenomas?

Well formed capsule encircling the tumor. So, careful evaluation of the integrity of the capsule is therefore critical in distinguishing follicular adenomas from follicular carcinomas which demostrate capsular and or vascular invasion (TOPNOTCH)


What is the most common clinically significant congenital anomaly of the thyroid?

Thyroglossal duct or cyst (TOPNOTCH)


Lamellar keratin formation or "wet keratin" is a diagnostic feature of what tumor?

Adamantinomatous craniopharyngoma (TOPNOTCH)


Morphology: extensive infiltration of the parenchyma by a mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate containing small lymphocytes, plasma cells, and well developed germinal centers

Hashimoto thyroiditis (TOPNOTCH)


Morphology: in its hyperplastic phase, they thyroid gland is diffusely and symmetrically enlarged and the follicles are lined by crowded columnar cells, which may pile up and form projections similar to those seen in Grave's disease

Diffuse nontoxic (simple) goiter (TOPNOTCH)


Morphology: Variant of papillary carcinos ma that is marked with tall columnar cells with intensely eosinophilic cytoplasm lining the papillary structures. The cells are at least twice as tall as they are wide.

Tall cell variant (TOPNOTCH)


Morphology: nuclei are usually round to ovoid, with stippled "salt and pepper" chromatin

Pheochromocytoma (TOPNOTCH)


Pathogenesis: Dysfunction in T cell selection and regulation leading to breakdown in self-tolerance to islet autoantigens

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1108


Pathogenesis: Insulin resistance in peripheral tissues and failure of compensation by beta cells

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1108


Characterized by inflammatory infiltrate of T cells and macrophages, beta cell depletion and islet atrophy

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1108


Characterized by amyloid deposition in islets and mild beta cell depletion. No insulitis.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1108


Most potent anabolic hormone with multiple synthetic and growth-promoting effects.

Insulin (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1109


The most important environmenta risk factor for type 2 diabetes

Obesity(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1111


The most common precipitating factor in DKA

Failure to take insulin(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1114


What explains the wide, staring gaze and lid lag in hyperthyroidism?

Sympathetic overstimulation of superior tarsal muscle(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1084


Most common cause of endogenous hyperthyroidism

Graves Disease(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1089


Triad of clinical findings in Graves Diseae

Hyperthyroidism, infiltrative ophthalmopathy, and pretibial myxedema(infiltrative dermopathy)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1089


The most common antibody subtype seen in 90% of patients with Graves disease.

Thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin(TSI) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1089


Patient presents with heat intolerance, palpitations, tibial edema, and exophthalmos. Thyroid gland was noted to be symmetrically enlarged. The most likely diagnosis is:

Graves disease(TOPNOTCH)


Effect of iodine in the morphology of thyroid in Graves disease

Involution of epithelium and accumulation of colloid(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1089


Laboratory features of Graves disease

Elevations in serum free T3 and T4 and decreased serum TSH(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1090


Most important single screening test for hyperthyroidism

TSH(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1084


Most often cause of congenital hypothyroidism

Iodine deficiency in the diet(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1085


Presents with slowing of physical and mental activity, fatigue, apathy, constipation, decreased sweating, shortness of breathing, cold intolerance, overweight.

Myxedema/Hypothyroidism(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1086

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