XX - The Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in XX - The Endocrine System Deck (166)
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61

What is the most common cause of primary adrenal insufficiency in developed countries?

Autoimmune adrenalitis (TOPNOTCH)

62

Spirinolactone bodies are seen in what tumor?

Aldosterone producing adenomas (TOPNOTCH)

63

Crook hyaline change is seen in?

Cushing syndrome (TOPNOTCH)

64

Watery Diarrhea, hypokalemia, achlorhydria or WDHA syndrome is seen in?

VIPoma (TOPNOTCH)

65

Syndrome of mild DM, characteristic rash (necrolytic migratory erythema), and anemia is seen in what tumor?

Glucagonomas or alpha cell tumors (TOPNOTCH)

66

Syndrome of DM, cholelithiasis, steatorrhea, and hypochlorhydria is seen in what tumor?

Somatostatinoma or delta cell tumor (TOPNOTCH)

67

Approximately 60%-80% of patients with DM will develop some form of diabetic retinopathy after how many years from the time of diagnosis?

15-20 years (TOPNOTCH)

68

The fundamental lesion of DM retinopathy

neovascularization (TOPNOTCH)

69

What special pattern of acute pyelonephritis is common in diabetics compared to non diabetics?

Necrotizing papillitis or papillary necrosis (TOPNOTCH)

70

These are PAS positive glomerular lesions made distinctive by ball like deposits of laminated matrix situated in the periphery of the glomerulus

Nodular glomerulosclerosis or Kimmelstiel Wilson lesion (TOPNOTCH)

71

What are the three most important glomerular lesions seen in DM?

Basement membrane thickening, diffuse mesangial sclerosis, and nodular glomerulosclerosis (TOPNOTCH)

72

What is the hallmark of diabetic macrovascular disease?

Accelerated atherosclerosis (TOPNOTCH)

73

What is the most common cause of death in diabetics?

Myocardial Infarction (TOPNOTCH)

74

What morphological change seen in pancreas is more commonly associated with DM Type 2 than DM Type 1?

Amyloid replacement of islets (TOPNOTCH)

75

What is the hallmark of hypocalcemia?

Tetany (TOPNOTCH)

76

The most common cause of clinically apparent hypercalcemia

Malignancy (TOPNOTCH)

77

The most common cause of asymptomatic elevated blood calcium

Primary hyperparathyroidism (TOPNOTCH)

78

A peculiar feature of this type of thyroid carcinoma is the presence of multicentric C cell hyperplasia

Familial Medullary Cancers of the thyroid (TOPNOTCH)

79

Acellular amyloid deposits are seen in what type of thyroid cancer?

Medullary Carcinoma (TOPNOTCH)

80

Morphology: fairly uniform cells forming small follicles containing colloid, quite reminiscent of normal thyroid

Follicular Carcinoma of the thyroid (TOPNOTCH)

81

These are concentrically calfcified structures that are often present in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid

Psamomma bodies (TOPNOTCH)

82

Morphology: the nuclei of these tumor cells contain finely dispersed chromatic which imparts an optically clear or empty appearance, giving rise to the designation ground glass or Orphan Annie eye

Papillary Carcinoma of the thyroid (TOPNOTCH)

83

The major risk factor predisposing to thyroid cancer

Ionizing radiation, particularly in the first two decades of life (TOPNOTCH)

84

Morphology: diffuse hypertrophy and hyperplasia of thyroid follicular epithelial cells with scalloping of the margins

Graves disease (TOPNOTCH)

85

Morphology: lymphocytic infiltration with hyperplastic germinal centers within the thyroid parenchyma and patch disruption and collapse of thyroid follicles

Subacute lymphocytic or Painless thyroiditis (TOPNOTCH)

86

Morphology: thyroid parenchyma contains a chronic inflammatory infiltrate with multinucleate giant cells enclosing naked pools and fragments of colloid

Subacute or granulomatous thyroiditis (TOPNOTCH)

87

Morphology: the thyroid parenchyma contains a dense lymphocytic infiltrate with germinal centers and deeply eosinophilic Hurthle cells line the residual thyroid follicles

Hashimoto Thyroiditis (TOPNOTCH)

88

What variant of craniopharyngoma frequently contains radiologicaly demonstrable calcifications?

Adamantinomatous craniopharyngoma (TOPNOTCH)

89

What is the most common cause of hyperpituitarism?

Adenoma (TOPNOTCH)

90

Hypofunction of the anterior pituitary occurs when approximately how much of the parenchyma is lost?

75% (TOPNOTCH)

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