Flashcards in X - The Blood Vessels Deck (111)
A 30 y/o male, smoker, presents with severe leg pain aggravated by exercise and relieved on rest. It further progressed to extremity ulcerations. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger disease)(TOPNOTCH)
Most imprortant risk factor for DVT
Prolonged immobiliztion resulting in venous stasis. (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 514
A 50 y/o male, diagnosed with lung cancer, presented with edema and cyanosis of the head , neck, and arms with cyanosis. This is a case of:
Superior vena cava syndrome (TOPNOTCH)
The most common etiologic agent in lymphangitis.
Group A beta hemolyitc streptococcus. (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p. 515
An autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in genes that encode components of TGF-B signaling pathway. Presents with telengiectasia that are widely distributed over the skin and mucus membranes.
Hereditary hemorrhagic telengiectasia/Osler-Weber-Rendu disease (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 516
Most common type of hemangioma
Capillary hemangioma(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p. 516
Painful tumors arising from modified smooth muscle cells of arteriovenous structure, most commonly found in the distal portion of the digits.
Glomus tumor (Glomangioma)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th Ed p. 517
A 13 year old male dies of a stray bullet to the head on New Year's Eve. At autopsy, there is a flat yellowish streak seen on the intimal surface of his abdominal aorta, near the bifurcation of the renal arteries. This streak (A) causes minor disturbance in blood flow (B)is expected in his age group (C) is composed of hemosiderin-filled foam cells (D) would have certainly evolved into an atheromatous plaque if he lived to old age
expected in his age group ("fatty streak" (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed pp 348-349)
Early atherosclerotic lesions are usually focal, patchy, and eccentric because (A) there are differences in the vascular hemodynamics at various points (B) the expression of LDL receptors along the blood vessels is varied (C) concentrations of macrophage-activating cytokines are different along blood vessels (D) certain endothelial cells are more sensitive to toxins and hyperglycemia than others
there are differences in vascular hemodynamics at various points (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 349
A 65 year old diabetic female with poor glycemic control and a 5 year history of intermittent chest pain develops pallor, shortness of breath and diaphoresis. She dies 16 hours later. At autopsy, the left ventricular wall is thickened, with dark mottling of the anterior portion, along with the septum and apex. Which of the following describes the likely histology of her left anterior descending artery? (A) an eccentric atheromatous plaque with a fibrous cap (B) a ruptured fibrous cap with calcifications in the lumen of the vessel (C) a ruptured fibrous cap with thrombus formation (D) complete occlusion of the original lumen by fibrous tissue, with neovascularization in the periphery
a ruptured fibrous cap with thrombus formation (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.351
What is the most common cause of aneurysms?
atherosclerosis (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 358
What is the most common site of atherosclerotic aneurysms?
abdominal aorta(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 358
A 75 year old male with heart failure symptoms of 10 years dies. At autopsy, his aortic trunk is dilated, with fibrous scars and wrinkling of the intima. The aortic valve is also dilated, and the left ventricle is markedly enlarged. Microscopic examination of the aorta shows narrowed or obliterated vasa vasorum to be narrowed, with a dense rim of lymphocytes and plasma cells, some extending into the media. Which of the following can suggest the etiology of the patient's findings? (A) family history of diabetes (B) chronic alcohol intake (C) history of sexually transmitted infection (D) occupational exposure to benzene
history of sexually transmitted infection (tertiary/cardiovascular syphilis) (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.359, 703
A 30 year old female with 3 year history of fever, weight loss and fatigue presents with right eye blindness. PE showed weak pulses in the upper extremities. Which of the following suggests that she has Takayasu arteritis, rather than temporal arteritis? (A) age (B) constitutional symptoms (C) giant cells in the large blood vessels (D) giant cells in the medium blood vessels
age (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 364-365
Classic polyarteritis nodosa affects small to medium sized vessels most commonly in which organ? (A) kidneys (B) heart (C) liver (D) GI tract
kidneys (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 365
A 2 year old boy presents with erythema of the conjunctiva, oral mucosa, palms and soles, with focal erosions. Palpation shows enlarged cervical lymph nodes. He suddenly dies a few hours after ER admission. Autopsy showed marked mononuclear infiltration of his left anterior descending artery, with fibrinoid necrosis and lumen occlusion. What could have prevented this fatal sequela? (A) low dose corticosteroids (B) Hepatitis B vaccine (C) Beta-lactam and aminoglycoside combination (D) intravenous immunoglobulin
intravenous immunoglobulin (Kawasaki disease) (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.366
A 42 year old man with 2 weeks of epistaxis undergoes an intranasal biopsy, which showed chronic granulomatous inflammation with giant cells. Xray showed cavitary lung lesions. He is treated with anti-Koch's for 6 months, but the epistaxis recurred. He also developed hematuria. Which of the following can help support a diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis, rather than TB? (A) positive P-ANCA (B) positive C-ANCA (C) urinalysis with RBC morphology (D) biopsy of the lung lesion
positive C-ANCA (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 367-368
A 27 year old Israeli expat presents with intermittent pain and pallor of the right index and middle fingers, precipitated by smoking and cold temperature. He reports symptomatic relief whenever he stops smoking. What is expected in the arteries of the involved fingers? (A) thrombus with neutrophil aggregates and necrosis (B) histiocytes and giant cells (C) ruptured fibrous cap and underlying foamy cells (D) eosinophils and lymphocytes in the media and intima
thrombus with neutrophil aggregates and necrosis (Buerger disease) (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.368
A 21 year old G1P0, 24 weeks AOG, has a reddish 1.0 cm diameter nodule on her left lower gum. She reports that the nodule appeared at 1 month of pregnancy. A biopsy showed shows capillaries with an acute and chronic inflammatory infiltrate and stromal edema. There is no pleomorphism, necrosis, or atypical mitosis. This nodule (A) can be found in 20% of pregnant women (B) is malignant (C) may spontaneously regress or fibrose after pregnancy (D) is metastatic from an ovarian primary
may spontaneously regress or fibrose after pregnancy (granuloma gravidarum/pregnancy tumor/pyogenic granuloma) (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.373
A 3 year old female with a large "port wine stain" on the right side of her face has occasional seizures. Further examination showed mental developmental delay. She may also have (A) more extensive vascular malformations (B) multiple colonic polyps (C) color blindness (D) alpha thalassemia
more extensive vascular malformations (Sturge-Weber syndrome) (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.374