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Flashcards in X - The Blood Vessels Deck (111)
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Appears as red-blue, soft, spongy masses 1-2 cm in diameter, which can affect large subcutaneous areas of the face, extremities, and othe body regions. Mass is sharply defined but not encapsulated, composed of large, cavernous, blood-filled spaces.

Cavernous hemangioma(TOPNOTCHRobbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 372


This form of capillar hemangioma is a rapidly growing peduncular red nodule on the skin, gingival, or oral mucosa, bleeds easily and is often ulcerated.

Pyogenic granuloma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 373


These are round, slightly elevated, red-blue firm nodules, less than 1 cm diameter that can resemble a minute focus of hemorrhage UNDER THE NAIL. Histologically, these are aggregates, nests, and masses of tumor cells intimately associated with branching vascular channels.

Glomus tumor (Glomangioma)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 373


A specialized arteriovenous structure involved in thermoregulation.

Glomus body(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 373


This lesion is the ordinary "birthmark" and is the most common form of ectasia. Characteristically a flat lesion on the head or neck, ranging in color from light pink to deep purple.

Nevus flammeus(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 374


This non-neoplastic vascular lesion grossly resembles a spider. There is radial, often pulsatile array of dilated subcutaneous arteries or arterioles about a central core, that blanches when pressure is applied to its center.

Spider telangiectasia(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 374


An opportunistic infection in immunocompromised persons that manifest as vascular proliferations involving skin, bone, brain and other organs. Characterized grossly by red papules and nodules, or rounded subcutaneous masses. Histologically, there is capillary proliferation with prominent epitheloid EC's showing nuclear atypia and mitoses. Lesions contain stromal neutrophils, nuclear dust nd purplish granular material.

Bacillary angiomatosis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 374


Common in patients with AIDS, caused by HHV 8, causing skin lesions ranging from patches, plaques to nodules.

Kaposi sarcoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 375


These are malignant endothelial neoplasms, with varying histology from plump, anaplastic but recognizable endothelial cells producing vascular channels to widely undifferentiated tumors having solid, spindle cell appearance and producing nondefinite blood vessels.

Angiosarcoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 376


Form of hypertension characterized by systolic pressure more than 200 mmHg or diastolic pressure more than 120 mmHg, renal failure, and retinal hemorrhages and exudates.

Malignant Hypertension (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 488


The most important independent risk factor for atherosclerosis.

Family history(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 492.


The initial event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis

Endothelial injury and dysfunction. (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 494


The major lipoprotein involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

LDL(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 494


2 most important causes of endothelial dysfunction

Hemodynamic disturbances and hypercholesterolemia. (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 494


The key processes in atherosclerosis

Intimal thickening and lipid accumulation (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 496


The major structural component of fibrous cap in an atheromatous plaque

Collagen(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 500


Medial ischemia leading to degenerative changes of aorta, leading to scarring, loss of elastic fibers, inadequate extracellular matrix synthesis, and production of amorphous ground substance. This can be seen in Marfan syndrome and scurvy.

Cystic medial degeneration(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th Ed p. 502


Most common etiology associated with ascending aortic aneurysm

Hypertension (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 502


A 70 y/o male, hypertensive, present with sudden severe abdominal pain. On physical examination, there is a presence of pulsatile abdominal mass. The most likely diagnosis is:

Abdominal aortic aneurysm(TOPNOTCH)


The most frequent preexisting histologically detectable lesion in aortic dissection

Cystic medial degeneration(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th Ed p. 504


Presents with sudden onset of excruciating pain, usually beginning in the anterior chest, radiating to the back between the scapulae, and moving downward.

Aortic dissection(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th Ed p. 505


Most common cause of death in aortic dissection.

Rupture of the dissection into the pericardial, pleural or peririthoneal cavities.(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basica Pathology, 9th ed., p. 505


A 38 y/o male presents with severe headache and diplopia associated with fever and fatigue. Area along the course of the superficial temporal artery was painful to palpation. Biopsy done revealed intimal thickening of the artery, granulomatous inflmmation of the internal elastic lamina with infiltrate of T cells and macrophages. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Giant cell arteritis (TOPNOTCH)


Patient initially present with fatigue, weight loss and fever and then reduced blood pressure and weak pulses in the carotids and upper extremities, ocular disturbances and neurologic deficits. The most likely diagnosis is:

Takayasu arteritis(TOPNOTCH)


Most common involved blood vessel in Takayasu arteritis.

Aortic arch (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 509


This disease presents with rapidly accelerating hypertension, abdominal pain, bloody stool, myalgia and peripheral neuritis. The most likely diagnosi:

Polyarteritis nodosa(TOPNOTCH)


A 4 y/o female presented with fever and maculopapular rash on her trunk and extremities. This is associated with conjunctival erythema, edema of the hands and feet, and cervical lymph node enlargement. The patient is at risk for what type of blood vessel involvement?

Coronary artery aneurysm which may lead to acute MI. (Case of Kawasaki Disease) (TOPNOTCH)


Patient presents with asthma, allergic rhinitis, palpable purpura, GI bleeding, renal disease, and cardiomyopathy. Histologic findings showed vascular granulomata and hypereosinophilia. The most likely diagnosis is:

Churg-Strauss syndrome(TOPNOTCH)


It presents as a clinical triad of recurrent oral apthous ulcers, genital ulcers, and uveitis.

Behcet Disease(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 511


This disease presents with persistent pneumonitis with bilateral nodular infiltrates, chronic sinusitis, mucosal ulceration of the nasopharynx, and renal disease. Histologic findings of upper respiratory tract lesion showed mucosal granuloma with geographic patterns of central necrosis and vasculitis. The most likely diagnosis:

Granulomatosis with polyangitis/Wegener granulomatosis(TOPNOTCH)

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