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Flashcards in X - The Blood Vessels Deck (111)
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31

Aneurysms which involve diffuse, circumferential dilation of a long vascular segment, varies in diameter and length, and can involve extensive portions of the aortic arch, abdominal aorta,and iliacs.

Fusiform aneurysms(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 357

32

Two most important causes of aortic aneurysms.

AtherosclerosisCystic medial degeneration of the arterial media(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 357

33

Infection of a major artery that causes weakness to its wall.

Mycotic aneurysm(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 357

34

This disease can more commonly affects men >50 years old. Lesion usually positioned below the renal arteries and above the aortic bifurcation. Can be saccular or fusiform.

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 358

35

Abdominal aortic aneurysm characterized by dense periaortic fibrosis containing abundant lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with manybmacrophages and often giant cells.

Inflammatory AAA(TOPNOTCHRobbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 358

36

Atherosclerotic lesions infected by lodging of circulating microorganisms in the wall, particularly in the setting of bacteremia from a Salmonella gastroenteritis. Suppuration further destroys the media, potentiating rapid dilation and rupture.

Mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 358

37

Small blood vessels and vasa vasorum show luminal narrowing and obliteration (obliterative endarteritis), scarring of the vessel wall and a dense surrounding rim of lymphocytes and plasma cells that may extend into the media. Characteristic of the tertiary stage of syphilis.

Syphilitic aortitis(TOPNOTCHRobbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 359

38

Most common point of origin of an aortic dissection.

Ascending aorta, 10 cms from the aortic valve(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 360

39

Most frequent pre-existing histologically detectable lesion in aortic dissection, characterized by elastic tissue fragmentation and separation of the elastic and smooth muscle cell elements of the media by cystic spaces filled with amorphous proteoglycan-rich extracellular matrix.

Cystic medial degeneration(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 361

40

Classification of aortic dissection involving either them ascending aorta only or both the ascending and descending aorta.

Type A dissections (proximal) Type I DeBakey - ascending aorta only Type II DeBakey - ascending and descending aorta(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 361

41

Classification of aortic dissections involving the descending aorta only, usually distal to the subclavian artery.

Type B dissection / type III DeBakey(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 361

42

Granulomatous inflammation frequently involving the temporal artery, occuring in patients >50 years old, associated with polymyalgia rheumatica.

Giant cell (Temporal) arteritis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 363

43

Granulomatous inflammation usually occuring in patients younger than 50 years old. Classically involves the aortic arch, with intimal hyperplasia and irregular thickening of the vessel wall. Origin of great vessels are obliterated causing weakness of peripheral pulses.

Takayasu arteritis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 364

44

Used to distinguish between giant cell arteritis and takayasu arteritis of the aorta.

Age of patient40 Giant cell arteritis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 364

45

In this disease, affected blood vessels develop nodular intimal thickening, granulomatous inflammation within the inner media centered on the internal elastic membrane, and fragmentation of the internal elastic lamina. Typically involves temporal and ophthalmic arteries.

Giant - cell/Temporal arteritis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 364

46

A systemic vasculitis causing transmural necrotizing inflammation of small to medium sized vessels, with mixed infiltvrate of neutrophils, eosinophils, and mononuclear cells, frequently accompanied by fibrinoid necrosis.Typically involves renal arteries but spares pulmonary vessels.

Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 365

47

Arteritis associated with mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, which usually occurs in children. Coronary arteries can be involved with aneurysm formation or thrombosis. Fibrinoid necrosis usually less prominent.

Kawasaki disease(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 366

48

Granulomatous inflammation involving the respiratory tract and necrotizing vasculitis affecting small vessels, including cresencteric glomerulonephritis. Associated with c-ANCA.

Wegener granulomatosis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 367

49

A necrotizing vasculitis that generally affects capillaries, arterioles and venules, with few or no immune deposits. Necrotizing glomerulonephritis and pulmonary capillaritis are common. Associated with p-ANCA.

Microscopic polyangiitis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 368

50

Eosinophil-rich and granulomatous inflammation involving the respiratory tract and necrotizing vasculitis affecting small vessels. Associated with asthma and blood eosinophilia. Associated with p-ANCA.

Churg-Strauss syndrome(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 368

51

Characterized by sharply segmental avute and chronic vasculitis of medium sized and small arteries, predominantly of the extremities. There is acute and chronic inflammation accompanied by luminal thrombosis, containing microabscess composed of neutrophils surrounded by granulomatous inflammation. Stromg relationship with cigarette smoking.

Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger disease)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 368

52

Results from an exaggerated vasoconstriction of digital arteries and arterioles, inducing paroxysmal pallor or cyanosis of the digits of the hands and feet.

Raynaud phenomenon(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 369

53

Reflects an exaggeration of central and local vasomotor responses to cold or emotion. Structural changes in the arterial walls are absent except late in course when intimal thickening can appear.

Primary Raynaud phenomenon (Raynaud disease)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 369

54

Reflects vascular insufficiency of the extremities in the context of arterial disease caused by other entities including SLE, Buerger disease, or atherosclerosis.

Secondary Raynaud phenomenon(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 370

55

Abnormally dilated, tortous veins produced by prolonged increase in intraluminal pressure and loss of vessel wall support. Veins show wall thinning at the points of maximal dilation with smooth muscle hypertrophy and intimal fibrosis. Focal thrombosis and venous valve deformities are common.

Varicose veins(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 370

56

Most common blood vessels involved in development of varicose veins.

Superficial veins of the upper and lower leg(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 370

57

Three sites of varices produced in the presence of portal hypertension.

GEJ (Esophageal varices)Rectum (Hemorrhoids)Periumbillical veins (Caput medusae)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 370

58

Common and serious complication of of deep vein thrombosis (DVT).

Pulmonary embolism(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 371

59

The acute inflammation elicited when bacterial infections spread into and through the lymphatics.

Lymphangitis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 371

60

These are bright red to blue lesions, that vary from a few millimeters tomseveral centimeters in diameter. Unencapsulated aggregates of closely packed, thin-walled capillaries, usually blood-filled and lined by flattened endothelium. Vessels are separated by scant connective tissue stroma.

Capillary hemangiomas(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 372

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