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Flashcards in Written Questions Deck (21)
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1

New Urbanism

Mid-20th century

 Emerged to deal with urban sprawl

Mixed-use walkable neighbourhood, reduction of population density

Example - Leon Krier, Poundbury, Dorchester

2

Aldo Rossi

Italian architect, known around the 1960s and 70s

Critics the lack of understanding of the city

Argues city must be studied and valued as something constructed over time – ‘Collective Memory’

Rejected the principle that form must follow function

Focuses upon everyday needs must be met

Example – Gallaratese residential apartment building

Example – San Cataldo Cemetery

3

Manfredo Tafuri

Stated as the world most important architectural historian of the second half of the 20th century

Speaks of cities as if they are animate beings

States cities as the most complete expression of a society and urban planning projects

and that they can reveal the aspiration and the concerns of a given historical moment

4

Status of Authority in Architecture

Ongoing questions: Who is the author of a project in Architecture? Architecture: art or profession? RIBA question – The Future for Architects?

Slow transition from God to Human  Religious, Superior Power

A Consensus among humans  Competition

Public Consensus  From project to design or market/creative commons such as Caruso St John, Herzog de Meuron and Zaha Hadid and Patrik Schmacher

5

Futurism

Artist movement started in Italy, last from 1909 - 1944

Form of architecture characterised by anti-historicism

Long horizontal lines suggesting speed, motion and urgency, effort to make architecture belong to modern times

Animated by Marinetti and works by Sant’ Elia, a key figure in the movement with drawings for La Citta Nouva (The New City)

 

(11 points of futurism set out goals)
(Opposed to culture)                                                 (Monumental symmetrical drawings ‘powerhouse’)

6

Expressionism

Modernist movement

Was the initial term for the German, Dutch and Danish Avant-Garde between 1910-1930

Important event was the Werkbund Exhibition of 1914 in Cologne

Key buildings – Bruno Taut’s Glass Pavilion and Mendelson’s Einstein’s Tower

 

7

Modernism

Influenced cultural trends and changes in the late 19th century

Development of modern industrial society and rapid growth of cities

Enhancement of technology, simplification and lack of decoration

Notion ‘forms follows function’

(Materials at 90 degrees to each other)
(Visual expression of structure)
(Use of industrial produced materials)               (Philosophical movement in the arts)

8

Constructivism

Originated in Russia in 1919, great effect on modern art movements of the 20th century

Rejection of the idea of autonomous art

In favour of art as a practice for social purpose

Influenced major trends such as Bauhaus and De Stijl movement

(Artist and architectural philosophy)

9

Bauhaus

School in Germany combined crafts and the fine arts


Famous for the approach to design that it published and taught

Introduction/development of mass produced objects

Founded by Walter Gropuis, operated from 1919-1933

(All disciplines would be combined under one term ‘Architecture’)

(Weinar 1919-1925)
(Dessau 1925-1932)
(Berlin 1932-1933)
(Closed in 1933)

10

De Stijl

Dutch for ‘The Style’, Dutch artistic movement founded in 1917

Advocated pure abstraction

Reduction to the essential of form and colour

Simplified visual composition to the vertical and horizontal directions

Only used primary colours along with black and white 

11

Art Deco

Rich colours, bold shapes and lavish ornamentation

Embrace technology – this separates it from Art Nouveau

Emerged in France after WW1 and flourish international in 1930’s and 40s. 

12

International Style

Emerged in 1920s and 1930s

Three principles – Express of volume rather than mass, balance rather than symmetry, the exculsion of applied ornament 

Standard modular components

The use of synthetic modern materials

Look towards a free plan

13

Brutalism

Began in 1950s lasting to mid-70s

Expression of structural materials

Typically concrete expressing form work pattern

Angular repetitive shapes

14

Post Moderism

Became a movement in 1970’s, began as a reaction to modernism

Borrows elements and reference from the past

Reintroduces colour and symbolism

Communicate with the public

Exposing building function

Vanna Venturi House, 1964, Chestnut Hill, Venturi

15

Critical Regionalism

Strives to counter the placelessness and lack of identity of the international style

Rooted to modern tradition but tied to geographical and cultural context

Rejected the Whimsicel individualism and ornamentation of Post Modern Architecture

Example: Bagsvaerd Church, Copenhagan 1976, Jorn Utzon

Example: Saynatsalo Town Hall, 1952,  Alvar Aalto

16

Avant-Garde

 

Pushing the boundaries of what is the normal

Promotes radical social reform

Meaning ahead of its time

17

CIAM

Organisation founded in 1928 and disbanded in 1959

The International Congress of Modern Architecture

Spreading principles of modern movement

Origins of Team X

18

Functionalism

Relationship between function and form

Designing a building based on the purpose of the building

19

Rationalism

Being true to the programme and materials

Choosing materials for their properties not aesthetics

Aspects of symmetry, etc second

Example: Casa del Fascio, 1936, Como, Terragni

20

Early Modernism in USA

 

Key figures Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright

Example Guggenheim Museum, 1959, New York, Frank Lloyd Wright

21

Contemporary City

City of Three Million Inhabitants, 1922, Le Corbusier

Boardacre City, 1934 -1958, Frank Lloyd Wright