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1

A patient has sustained a stroke and you note that he has a flexion synergy pattern in his
upper extremity and lower extremity. Pick the best answer that describes both synergy
patterns:

UE: shoulder abduction, external rotation, elbow flexion, forearm supination, wrist
flexion LE: hip flexion, abduction, external rotation, knee flexion, ankle dorsiflexion,
inversion

2

During normal heel strike, the forward hip is how flexed:

25 degrees flexed

3

Gait cycle is described by the activity between

Heel strike on one side and the following heel strike on the same side

4

Pick the following choice that best describes Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (osteochondrosis):

Males>females, average age onset 6 years old, psoatic limp due to psoas major
weakness, lower extremity moves into external rotation, flexion and adduction, MRI
will show collapse of subchondral bone at femoral neck

5

A patient is seen in clinic and presents with lumbar DJD. The patient has handed you a
script with RX: LSO aligned appropriately. How would you align the patient in the sagittal
plane:

Decrease lumbar lordosis

6

A patient is seen in clinic and presents with L5,S1 spondylolisthesis. The patient has
handed you a script with RX: LSO aligned appropriately. How would you align the patient in
the sagittal plane:

Decrease lumbar lordosis

7

It is early in the recovery phase of a patient with a L3 compete spinal cord injury. The
expected outcome would MOST likely be:

Some recovery of function since damage is to peripheral nerve roots

8

With regards to spondylolisthesis, what are the radiographic signs that contraindicate
orthotic intervention and indicate a surgical candidate:

Anterior translation of the superior vertebrae over the inferior vertebrae greater
than 50%

Superior vertebrae angulations of 50 deg relative to the inferior vertebrae

9

A patient is seen in the hospital. The patient presents with a L1 burst fracture from a
snowmobile accident. Which orthosis would be most appropriate:

Polymer TLSO

10

With a traction injury to the anterior division of the brachial plexus you would expect,
weakness of the elbow flexors, wrist flexors and forearm pronators. What other muscle group
would you expect to be weak:

Thumb abductors

11

A patient is seen in the hospital. The patient presents with a T11 anterior compression
fracture from a bike accident. The patient is neurologically intact and the fracture is stable.
Which orthosis(s) would be most appropriate:

CASH TLSO or Jewett TLSO

12

When taking an impression for a custom polymer LSO for a patient with L5, S1
spondylolisthesis, how would you position the patient if they were allowed to stand through
the procedure:

Patient should be asked to flex their hips and knees slightly

13

You have a patient that presents for evaluation for an AFO after a stroke. You notice he has
a forward flexed posture. What positive muscle length test would you expect to see associated
with this posture:

Hip extensor tightness

14

What are some of the biomechanical principals behind a LSO corset? Choose all that
apply:

A) Kinesthetic reminder
B) Increased intra-abdominal pressure
C) Multiple three point pressure systems

15

A patient is seen in clinic. The patient presents with a separated connective tissue in her
symphysis pubis. What orthosis is recommended and what hormone can cause the elasticity
of the symphysis pubis to increase during pregnancy, choose two answers:

B) Relaxin hormone
D) SI belt

16

You are working with a therapist on gait training for a patient that has a L1 complete
spinal cord injury along with another patient that has an L4 spinal cord injury. What bracing
would you expect most appropriate for these patients and ambulation tolerance respectively:

L1 spinal cord injury: Independent ambulation with knee ankle foot orthosis (KAFO)
household distance, L4 spinal cord injury: ankle foot orthosis, community ambulator
independent

17

Posterior trim lines on a TLSO extend from the sacrococcygeal joint to just inferior
to_____________ . Anterior trim lines extend from symphysis pubis to
the_____________:

Scapular spine, sternal notch

18

What pathology would indicate the use of a Williams Flexion LSO:

Sponylolisthesis

19

The "unhappy triad" includes injury to what structures:

ACL, MCL, medial meniscus

20

A patient is seen in clinic. The patient has bilateral pars fractures at L5 and is currently
utilizing a custom polymer overlapping style LSO with decreased lumbar lordosis. The
physician is not satisfied with the orthosis results and wants to know what you can do to
further immobilize the fracture site? Choose the appropriate answer:

Add a hip spica to the LSO

21

A Knight Taylor TLSO is classified as _______________ where a Taylor TLSO is
classified as ______________:

A/P M/L control, A/P control

22

A patient with an upper motor neuron disorder has a posterior loss of balance with
immediate sit to standing due to either tight muscles or weakness. What would be the most
likely cause of this:

Spasticity of the gastrocnemius-soleus

23

A scoliosis patient is seen in clinic. Upon radiographic reading you note that the thoracic
curve apex is located at T6. Which orthosis is appropriate:

Milwaukee CTLSO

24

Posterior Trim lines on an LSO extend from the sacrococcyxgeal joint to just inferior
to_____________ . Anterior trim lines extend from symphysis pubis to
the_____________:

Inferior angle of the scapula, xiphoid process

25

You are seeing a patient with a one year history of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. She is
ambulating with bilateral canes, shows limited endurance and foot drop. Based on the
diagnosis what device would you recommend for trial:

ALS is a progressive degenerative disease where due to the progressive nature you
feel trial of ankle foot orthosis would be appropriate due to her fatigue and foot drop

26

A patient is seen at the local hospital Ortho/Neuro floor. The patient presents with an
unstable odontoid fracture. Which orthosis would you recommend:

HALO CTLSO

27

A patient is seen in clinic. The patient presents with DX: lower lumbar stenosis and a RX:
LSO align appropriately. Which option would you recommend:

LSO aligned in flexion

28

A patient has a fixed forefoot varum. All of the following are considered compensatory
strategies for a fixed forefoot varus malalignment EXCEPT:

Subtalor supination

29

When selecting anterior pin placement in a HALO CTLSO application, where is the proper
starting position:

Lateral 1/3 of eyebrow, slightly superior to eyebrow

30

When selecting posterior pin placement in a HALO CTLSO application, where is the
proper starting position:

Slightly superior to ear, opposing the anterior pin directly, inferior to equator of the
cranium