Flashcards in Words to know Deck (31)
The art of persuasion; practical application of the theoretical discipline of philosophy
An art or craft; can be learned and taught (Aristotle considers rhetoric a technê)
- Foundation of rhetoric!
- A syllogism or three-part deductive argument using commonly accepted opinions rather than logic to make arguments.
"Socrates is mortal because he's human."
1. All humans are mortal. (major premise – unstated)
2. Socrates is human. (minor premise – stated)
3. Therefore, Socrates is mortal. (conclusion – stated)
Aristotle's Four Causes
1. Material cause: constituent factor; what makes it recognizable (structure, activity, etc.)
2. Formal cause: the function of a thing
3. Efficient cause: that which causes a thing to exist (i.e. the painter causes the painting to exist, so she is it's efficient cause)
4. Final cause: a thing's purpose or end
Everything has a function and a natural end toward which it is inclined.
That which has no properties
That which has some properties; related to material cause
Aristotle vs Plato on Forms
Plato: the form and the material object are separable
Aristotle: the form and the material object are inseparable; we can differentiate the two conceptually but one cannot be thought of without the other
Types of Change
Accidental change: superficial change to the substance (material thing)
Substantial change: creation or destruction of the substance (i.e. birth/death)
Common sense, reputable belief (i.e. if we both agree that we see something, then we do see it)
Innate/natural ability; experiential and non-scientific
method of cross-examination characterized by informal use (i.e. can begin in the streets, not necessarily the university)
problem that is not absolute (i.e. it is difficult to get around, but it can conceivably be done)
- Virtue: a habit developed through practice
- Rhetoric is a virtue: you practice it and make it into a habit
- Deals with particulars rather than universals
Plato's view of rhetoric
- Considers it a perversion of the art of truth because it is unscientific and distorts the truth
- Views it as a failure to care for/properly govern your soul
Aristotle's Tripartite Soul
1. Reason: only humans have this; it is rational
2. Animal: the senses
3. Plant: governs basic bodily functions
No one does wrong willingly, but out of ignorance; to be ethical requires an understanding of what is virtuous
You cannot choose to act against the good because it is irrational. If you act against the good, you are simply ignorant of it.
What topics are proper to rhetoric?
- Common things about which most people have at least limited knowledge and some opinion; that which belongs to "no definite science"
- Concerns universals, NOT particulars
The reasoning part of the soul knows the right thing to do, but the appetitive part overrides this knowledge
Trick question! There is no "free will" in Greek thought, only rational choice. Either you know the right thing to do and you do it, or you're ignorant of what's right so you don't do it.
Scientific knowing using logical, universal arguments
What are the three divisions of rhetoric?
1. Deliberative: persuading or dissuading
2. Judicial: defensive or accusatory
3. Epideictic: demonstrative
Capacity or potentiality; includes material things
Function or actuality; includes forms and God
The ability to be virtuous and happy is dependant upon one's life circumstances
habit + mean between two extremes + logos + context
- requires practice, moderation, reason, and the right circumstances
- relative to us, not an absolute
There must be mutual affection and time spent together
What are the three types of friendships?
1. Pleasure: enjoy their company
2. Utility: they are useful to you
3. Friendship of the Good: you see yourself in them