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PHIL 312 - Aristotle's Rhetoric > Words to know > Flashcards

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1

Rhetoric/Oratory

The art of persuasion; practical application of the theoretical discipline of philosophy

2

Technê

An art or craft; can be learned and taught (Aristotle considers rhetoric a technê)

3

Enthymeme

- Foundation of rhetoric!
- A syllogism or three-part deductive argument using commonly accepted opinions rather than logic to make arguments.
Example:
"Socrates is mortal because he's human."
1. All humans are mortal. (major premise – unstated)
2. Socrates is human. (minor premise – stated)
3. Therefore, Socrates is mortal. (conclusion – stated)

4

Aristotle's Four Causes

1. Material cause: constituent factor; what makes it recognizable (structure, activity, etc.)
2. Formal cause: the function of a thing
3. Efficient cause: that which causes a thing to exist (i.e. the painter causes the painting to exist, so she is it's efficient cause)
4. Final cause: a thing's purpose or end

5

Aristotle's Teleology

Everything has a function and a natural end toward which it is inclined.

6

Prime Matter

That which has no properties

7

Proximate matter

That which has some properties; related to material cause

8

Aristotle vs Plato on Forms

Plato: the form and the material object are separable
Aristotle: the form and the material object are inseparable; we can differentiate the two conceptually but one cannot be thought of without the other

9

Types of Change

Accidental change: superficial change to the substance (material thing)
Substantial change: creation or destruction of the substance (i.e. birth/death)

10

Endoxa

Common sense, reputable belief (i.e. if we both agree that we see something, then we do see it)

11

Knack

Innate/natural ability; experiential and non-scientific

12

Socratic Dialectic

method of cross-examination characterized by informal use (i.e. can begin in the streets, not necessarily the university)

13

Aporetic

problem that is not absolute (i.e. it is difficult to get around, but it can conceivably be done)

14

Virtue Ethics

- Virtue: a habit developed through practice
- Rhetoric is a virtue: you practice it and make it into a habit
- Deals with particulars rather than universals

15

Plato's view of rhetoric

- Considers it a perversion of the art of truth because it is unscientific and distorts the truth
- Views it as a failure to care for/properly govern your soul

16

Aristotle's Tripartite Soul

1. Reason: only humans have this; it is rational
2. Animal: the senses
3. Plant: governs basic bodily functions

17

Socratic Intellectualism

No one does wrong willingly, but out of ignorance; to be ethical requires an understanding of what is virtuous

18

Rational Choice

You cannot choose to act against the good because it is irrational. If you act against the good, you are simply ignorant of it.

19

What topics are proper to rhetoric?

- Common things about which most people have at least limited knowledge and some opinion; that which belongs to "no definite science"
- Concerns universals, NOT particulars

20

Aristotelian Intellectualism

The reasoning part of the soul knows the right thing to do, but the appetitive part overrides this knowledge

21

Free Will

Trick question! There is no "free will" in Greek thought, only rational choice. Either you know the right thing to do and you do it, or you're ignorant of what's right so you don't do it.

22

Episteme

Scientific knowing using logical, universal arguments

23

What are the three divisions of rhetoric?

1. Deliberative: persuading or dissuading
2. Judicial: defensive or accusatory
3. Epideictic: demonstrative

24

Dunamis

Capacity or potentiality; includes material things

25

Energeia

Function or actuality; includes forms and God

26

Moral Luck

The ability to be virtuous and happy is dependant upon one's life circumstances

27

Moral Virtue

habit + mean between two extremes + logos + context
- requires practice, moderation, reason, and the right circumstances
- relative to us, not an absolute

28

Friendship Theory

There must be mutual affection and time spent together

29

What are the three types of friendships?

1. Pleasure: enjoy their company
2. Utility: they are useful to you
3. Friendship of the Good: you see yourself in them

30

Three characteristics of a persuasive orator

1. Practical wisdom: common sense
2. Virtue: habits; must appear virtuous to the audience
3. Good will: intentions