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Flashcards in Wing and Control Theory Deck (88)
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61

How are flaps different than ailerons?

Both flaps are extended or retracted at the same time

62

How do fowler flaps affect the surface area, camber, and angle of attack?

Fowler flaps increase surface area, camber, and angle of attack

63


What are the advantages of flaps?

- Increase lift

- Lower stall speed

- Lower takeoff and landing speed

- Shorter landing and takeoff distance

- Easier on landing gear

- Better visibility

- Permits approach with power (less cooling)

64

What are the disadvantages of flaps?

- Increase induced drag

- Reduce climb performance

- Create momentary sink when retracted

65

Describe aileron drag

Yawing effect caused by asymmetric drag of aileron drag, causing yaw in direction of the rising wing

66

Describe the two solutions to aileron drag

Differential aileron: downgoing aileron moves through small angle, reducing drag. Upgoing aileron moves through large angle, increasing drag

Frise aileron: downgoing aileron streamlined into wing, reducing drag. Upgoing aileron nose projects into airflow, increasing drag

67

What is a trim tab?

Secondary flight control surfaces that are on the edge of larger, primary control surfaces

68

Describe the two different types of trim tabs

Anti-servo tabs: trim tab for stabilators

Servo tabs: device for moving flight controls on large airplanes

69

What factors should be considered when climbing?

Visibility, engine temperature, terrain

70

How should an aircraft be flow to obtain the greatest glide distance?

Aircraft should be flown at maximum load/drag ratio

71

What factors should be considered when gliding?

Windmilling propeller, effect of wind

72

Describe the forces acting when an aircraft climbs

73

Describe the forces acting when an aircraft glides

74

What is the load factor?

Ratio of load supported to weight of aircraft

75

What is the load factor in straight and level flight?

1G

76

What is the load factor when turning?

77

What is maneuvering speed and how is it relevant to gust loads?

Maneuvering speed is the airspeed limit for an aircraft chosen by the designer. At speeds greater than the maneuvering speed, vertical gusts can cause a sudden increase in the angle of attack which may cause failure of the aircraft

78

What is a stall?

Decrease in lift caused by angle of attack exceeding the critical angle

79

Describe washout and how it affects stalling

The wing is designed so that the angle of incidence is greater at the wing roots than the wing tips. This ensures that the root stalls before the tip, providing the aircraft with continued aileron control and resistance to spinning

80

What are stall strips used for?

Used to improve controllability of an aircraft when it enters stall at a high angle of attack

81

Describe the relationship between the boundary layer, lift, and drag

The longer the boundary layer adheres to the wing, the greater the lift and the less drag produced

82

Name ways to increase efficiency by decreasing the interference between the airflow on the underside of the wing and the the airflow on top of the wing

Slots/slats, vortex generators, winglets, drooped wings, wing tip tanks, wing fences

83

Desribe how vortex generators work

84

Name a design feature that prevents spanwise flow

Wing fences

85

How do winglets and drooped wings work?

Winglets reduce drag associated with vortices that develop at wingtips

Drooped wing tips minimize loss of lift from wing tip vortices

86

How do spoilers affect drag?

Increase drag, slowing an aircraft or making it descend

87

What flight regime lies between maximum endurance and the stall?

Slow flight

88