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Flashcards in Week 8: Ecosystem Services Deck (42)
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1

Atmosphere

the envelope of gases surrounding the earth or another planet

2

Biosphere

the regions of the surface, atmosphere, and hydrosphere of the earth (or analogous parts of other planets) occupied by living organisms

3

Lithosphere

the rigid outer part of the earth, consisting of the crust and upper mantle: where nutrient uptake and decomposition occurs

4

The Basic Ecosystem

Sun and CO2 (inorganic carbon) --> Photoautotrophs --> dead organic matter and inorganic nutrients --> Heterotrophs (decomposers) --> etc.

5

Photosynthesis

the process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water. Photosynthesis in plants generally involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a byproduct

6

Photoautotrophs

any organism that derives its energy for food synthesis from light and is capable of using carbon dioxide as its principal source of carbon

7

Heteretrophs

(decomposers) an organism requiring organic compounds for its principal source of food

8

Payment for social system services

Gov't, banking, cable, internet, health, etc.

9

Payment for ecosystem services

Typically doesn't happen (provisioning, regulating, cultural, supporting)

10

Biodiversity

Feeds into ecosystem services (inputs) e.g. genes, populations, species, communities, ecosystems

11

Ecosystem Services

Supporting services, provisioning services, regulating services, cultural services

12

Provisioning Services

products obtained from ecosystem services including: food, fiber, fuel, genetic resources, fresh water, etc

13

Regulating Services

benefits obtained from regulation of ecosystem processes including: air quality regulation, climate regulation, water regulation, erosion regulation, disease regulation, pest regulation, pollination, pollution regulation

14

Cultural Services

non-material benefits through spiritual enrichment, cognitive development, reflection, recreation, aesthetic experience: cultural diversity, spiritual and religious values, knowledge systems, inspiration, sense of place, etc

15

Supporting Services

those that are necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services including: soil formation, photosynthesis, primary production, nutrient cycling, water cycling

16

Adverse Effects

14/22 Ecosystem Services are Adversely Affected by Humans

17

Linkages

Trade, transport, travel affect integrated global economy, ecosystems, and atmosphere and hydrosphere

18

Natural Capital

Climate regulation, pollination, biological control, invasion regulation, soil production, natural goods and services

19

Issues with ecosystem services

species are the service provider, but they cannot participate in the markets; definition of ecosystem services needs to be clear; public goods which are not effectively regulated by markets

20

Kremen Framework (2005)

1) identify species or entities that are key ecosystem providers; 2) determine the various aspects of community structure that influence function in real landscapes; 3) assess key environmental factors influencing provision of services; 4) measure the spatio-temporal scale over which providers and services operate

21

ESP

Ecosystem Providers - are critical

22

Stability

If ESPs can compensate for one another, then this improves system stability; if ESPs are threatened by extinction, then this lowers system stability

23

US EPA definition of Ecosystem Services

Outputs of ecological functions or processes that directly or indirectly contribute to social welfare or have the potential to do so in the future. Some outputs may be bought and sold, but most are not marketed

24

General vs. narrow definitions

More general references are regarded as more appropriate for education and raising awareness; more narrow definitions are most practical way to avoid issues of joint production, double counting, to distinguish ecological structure from function, to estimate a discrete service or multiple services within area; estimates of market value require great attention to definition

25

Economic value of an asset

instrumental role in attaining human goals; excludes intrinsic value

26

Intrinsic value

Intrinsic value is an ethical and philosophic property. It is the ethical or philosophic value that an object has "in itself" or "for its own sake", as an intrinsic property. An object with intrinsic value may be regarded as an end or (in Kantian terminology) end-in-itself; can retain value outside of benefits to humans or social welfare

27

What makes ecological resources special?

Most assets are marketed; ecosystems are generally not

28

Efficient management of ecosystem services requires...

explicit methods to measure its social value

29

One reason for excessive land conversion, habitat fragmentation, and pollution

Failure to take into account the value of non-marketed ecological services

30

Perrings on Eco Services (2009)

Question not at what rate to extract particular resources, but how to balance the mix of species to assure a flow of benefits over a range of possible conditions