Flashcards in week 4 Deck (19)

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1

## bias occurs if certain participants have a/an ________ probability of being selected

### unequal

2

## random sampling examples

###
simple random

stratefied

cluster

3

## non-probability sampling examples

###
convenience sampling

quota sampling

snowball sampling

4

## standardized normal distributeion

### gaussian distribution

5

## z score and its equation

###
labeled by number of standard devs

Z=(X-(MEAN OF X))/ standard dev

6

## percentile equation

### (# of scores less than x)/N x 100

7

## inference

###
making generalizations about a pop based on data from samples

use hypotheses to make inferences

8

## null hypothesis

###
no association

no difference in means

no difference in proportions

9

## alternate hypothesis

###
there is an association

diff in means or proportions

10

## alpha

###
the probably that the investigator accepts a priori that the results may be due to chance rather than a true difference

accepted proability of a type 1 error

11

## p value

###
the actual probability from the data that results are due to chance rather than a true difference

the probability that a null hypothesis is true

12

## reject the null if

### p

13

## type I error

### recommend/ provide treatment that is inneffective

14

## type II error

### failure to identify an effective treatment that may benefit your patient

15

## confidence interval

###
calculated range of values around the estimated measure that has a specified (95%) probability of including the true value of the measure in the population

may be used to determine significant, or precision

based on standard error

16

## determining if means are different using CIs

### is the difference between the two means falls between the CI, they are not different

17

## how precise the estimate is depends on the ____ of the CI

### width

18

## power

###
probability of a type 2 error

related to variability of measure in question

magnitude of the efect

larger sample size-> greater power

19