week 3 Flashcards Preview

EBP > week 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in week 3 Deck (33)
Loading flashcards...
1

independent variable

the variable that is manipulated
presumed cause of an effect
what is being observed

2

dependent variables

the outcome of an intervention or exposure
measured variable used to determine the effects of the independent variable
outcome whose variation we seek to explain or account for by the influence of independent variables

3

confounder

factor other than the independent variable that influences the outcome

4

attribute variables

used to describe a sample

5

explanatory variables

variable that causally explains the relationship or outcome under study

6

predictors

variable that is causally related to a future outcome

7

internal validity

extent to which the study lacks bias
how well does the study support a causal relationship?

8

external validity

generalizability of results
can the results be applied to the population?

9

bias

a systematic error in the way a study is carried out that can lead to false conclusions
any trend in the collection, analysis, interpretation, publication or review of data that can lead to conclusions tht are systematically different from the truth

10

threats to internal validity

history
maturation
testing
instrumentation
group assignment
loss to follow up
tmt crossover
compensatory issues

11

threats to ext validity

subject selection
setting where research is conducted
time since study

12

causation

an outcome or event will occur as a result of a previous event

13

association

a statistical relationship btw two events that may or may not be causal

14

criteria for causation

exposire precedes outcome
strong association
biologically credible
consistent with previous research
dose-response relationship
alternative expanations

15

direct measures

concrete values

16

indirect measures

abstract representations of quantities and/or characteristics

17

constructs

abstract variables that cannot be seen directly, but are inferred by measuring relevant behaviors that are observable
multidimensional
development of an instrument

18

categorical variables

nominal variables: counts, frequencies, percents
ordinal variables: rank ordered categories, quantitative analysis often ambiguous

19

numeric variables

interval and ratio variables

20

transforming scales

can change a numeric scare to categirocal but cannot change categorical to numeric

21

random error

chance variation in measurement

22

systematic error

results from an identifiable source

23

sources of error

inaccuracy, instrument inprecision, subject response bias

24

analytic procedures are used to quantify ____ due to random error

uncertainty

25

____ is dealt with in the design of the study anf through good measurement procedures

bias

26

variance

measure of variability or spread of observations in the sample

function of both true variability within the population and variability due to measurement error

27

reliability

degree to which a measurement procedure is repeatable

28

validity

degree to which a measurement correctly estimates the true value of the object being measures

29

first requirement of measurement

can it be repeated consistently with minimal error?

30

second requirement of measurement

does the test/measure actually measure what it claims to measure?