Week 2.b - Theories of Motivation Flashcards Preview

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1

The process that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward reaching a goal is known as

Motivation

2

Is motivation a personal trait?

No. The interaction of the individual with the situation an important factor

3


Name two types of Motivations

Intrinsic Motivators (from within) and Extrinsic Motivators (external rewards)

4

Needs Theories of Motivation

Does Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs always progress in the same order? (Physiological needs > safety > love /belonging > esteem > self-actualization)

no, sometimes a person (example given was philosopher, Nietzsche) can be self actualized without going through the other stages first

5

Needs Theories of Motivation

the realization or fulfillment of one's talents and potentialities, especially considered as a drive or need present in everyone is

Self Actualization

6

Needs Theories of Motivation

Herzberg's Two Factor Model of motivation contains what two factors? Please provide examples of each

Motivators (Intrinsic - e.g.responsibility, promotional opportunities, personal growth opportunities)

and Hygiene Factors - e.g. pay, company policies, quality of supervision, etc..

7

Needs Theories of Motivation

Does Herzberg believe you can motivate with Hygiene factors?

No, his argument is that the only true way to motivate is through intrinsic motivation (leaving out people who are truly motivated by things like money)

8

Needs Theories of Motivation

What are some criticisms of Herzbergs model?

- Reliability of how the data was collected is in question - eg. to measure intrinsic satisfaction, etc.

Also, hygiene factors can motivate

9

Needs Theories of Motivation

McClelland's Theory of Needs contains what 3 Needs as Motivators

Need for POWER
Need for ACHIEVEMENT
Need for AFFILIATION

10

Needs Theories of Motivation

According to McClelland, how would you motivate someone who primary need was the Need for Power

Because N.Pow people need to have influence over others, motivating them by giving them a leadership role is best

11

Needs Theories of Motivation

According to McClelland, how would you motivate an employee with a Need for Achievement?

Because they have a drive to excel, tangible recognition, i.e. company awards would be a good motivator

12

Needs Theories of Motivation

According to McClelleand, how would you motivate and employee with a Need for Affiliation

Because N.Aff people are motivated by close interpersonal relationships, having work be a sociable environment and maybe team outings as a motivator would work

13

Needs Theories of Motivation

McClelland's Theory of needs has the BEST RESEARCH SUPPORT, but what are 2 difficulties?

- Hard to define - almost everything is subconscious
- only applies to high acheivers

14

What are the 3 Needs Theories of Motivation Studied?

- Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
- McClleland's Theory of Needs
- Herzberg's 2 -Factor theory

15

Example of when individuals have needs that when unsatisfied, will result in motivation

i.e. need to be praised, will work harder to be recognized

16

what are Process Theories of Motivation


Process theories of motivation focus on how one motivates oneself and others

17

Process Theories of Motivation

The mentality "If I work hard, put in effort and do a good job at work, I can expect to get organizational rewards"

is an example of what Process Theory of Motivation?

Expectancy Theory

18

Process Theories of Motivation

What is one thing to be cautious of when looking at Expectancy Theory?

you have to make sure the organization is measuring success or "good performance" the way you are

(e.g. some organization’s appraisal systems may be designed to assess performance factors such as loyalty, initiative, or courage"

19

Process Theories of Motivation

"Specific and difficult goals with feedback lead to higher performance " is explaining what Process Theory of Motivation?

Goal Setting Theory

20

Process Theories of Motivation

Goal setting motivates in what 4 ways?

1) Directs attention
2) regulates effort
3) increases persistence
4) encourages development of strategies and action plans

21

Process Theories of Motivation

Goal SettinTg Theory is also known as

MBO - Management By Objectives

22

Process Theories of Motivation

What are SMART goals?

S-specific
M-measurable
A-attainable
R-realistic
T- timebound

23

Process Theories of Motivation

The statement "I believe I can do this job well because I have risen to the occasion before"

is an example of what Process Theory of Motivation?

Self-efficacy Theory

24

Process Theories of Motivation

The higher your self efficacy, the more_______ you will have in your ability to complete or perform a task

confidence

25

Process Theories of Motivation

"If I show up late to work, I will be reprimanded. If I hit all my targets, I will be given a bonus on my pay"

is an example of which process theory of motivation?

Reinforcement Theory

(Unwanted behaviours punished, desirable behaviours rewarded)

26

"I prefer to choose when I come to work - that's by I really enjoy the flex schedule" is a statement that might be said by someone who has high

Self-determination

27

Individuals prefer to have more control over their actions, thus anything that makes a previously enjoyed task feel more like an obligation than a freely chosen activity will undermine motivation – i.e. paid volunteer work is

Self-determination theory (Cognitive Evaluation Theory)

28

Equity theory is

Individuals comparing their job inputs with those of others and responding to eliminate those inequalities

i.e. exert less effort if underpaid or more if overpaid

29

5 MAIN POINTS to keep in mind when trying to motivate ppl within an organization

Recognize individual differences
Use goals and feedback
Allow individuals to participate in decisions that affect them
When giving rewards, be sure to align reward with the desired performance
Make sure you have an equitable system in place