week 2 - pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in week 2 - pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics Deck (111)
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1

Pharmacokinetics is the study of concentration changes of drugs during _ _ _ ?

absorption
distribution
metabolism
elimination

2

PharmacoKINETICS is what the _ does to the _ once the drug enters.

body
drug

KB toys- kinetics/body

2

pharmacoKINETICS- the vascular system delivers drug to affected tissue, the drug can either be __ to plasma proteins and when __ can cross membrane to enter tissues. __ drug enters organs, muscle fat, and receptors

bound
unbound
unbound

3

PharmacoKINETICS affects a drug's _ _ _ _ _?

onset
time course
offset
patient variability of response
amount of drug available to act on receptors

4

drug transfer to sites is dependent on six factors

molecular size
degree of ionization
lipid solubility
protein binding
perfusion
concentration gradients

5

pharmacoDYNAMICS - what a __ does to our __

drug
body

Double D's - drug/dynamic

6

pharmacoDYNAMICS deals with the __ of receptors to a drug, the __ by which a drug effects occur, what the __ does to the body, and receptor sensitivity is measured by the __ __ required to elicit responses

responsiveness
mechanisms
drug
plasma concentrations

7

the dose response curve depicts the relationship between the __ __ and the __ __

drug dose
pharmacologic effect

8

the dose response curve demonstrates the differences in four things

potency
slope
efficacy
individual responses

9

the potency of a drug is depicted by location along __ axis of dose response curve

dose

10

potency is influenced by __ and __ __

pharmacoKINETICS (ADME)
receptor affinity

11

ED is the dose required to produce an effect in a % of patients

ie- ED50, ED99

12

the slope is influenced by the __ of receptors __ before drug effects occur

number
occupied

13

a steep slope denotes that a __ of receptors are occupied before the drug effect occurs, an example of this are __

majority
neuromuscular blockers

14

with a steep slope a __ increase in drug concentration elicits a __ increase in drug effect

small
large

15

with a steep slope the difference between the __ dose and the __ dose is smaller

therapeutic
toxic

16

MAC is __

crap

17

drug interactions can cause alterations in pharmacoKINETICS, an example being
patients on highly protein bound agents such as phenytoin or aspirin have __ metabolism of NMBs due to less drug ACCEPTOR sites

Higher rate of

18

drug interactions can cause alterations in pharmacoDYNAMICS, an example being a __ in volatile agent MAC with patients receiving opioids

decrease

19

an example of a PHYSIOCHEMICAL drug interaction is when one drug causes a second drug to __ in an IV line

precipitate

20

What are some examples of beneficial drug interactions?

meperidine and promethazine
hydralazine and propranolol for HTN

21

adverse drug interactions impair the efficacy or enhance the toxicity of drugs through four ways

impair absorption
compete with binding sites
alter metabolism
alter excretion
Basically opposite of ADME

23

Plasma drug concentrations do not always indicate what?

clinical effects

24

Drugs are __ of weak acids or weak bases

salts

25

Salts are __ __ resulting from a neutralization reaction between an acid and a base

ionic compounds

26

Salts are electrically __ and have __ net charge

neutral
no

27

Ionized drugs are __ soluble and __ cross cell membranes due to electrical charge

water
CAN NOT

28

Non-ionized drugs are __ soluble and __ diffuse across cell membranes like the blood brain barrier

lipid
CAN

29

The __ the degree of ionization, the __ the ability to cross the blood brain barrier, the placental barrier, and hepatocytes

greater
LESS

29

the degree of drug ionization is determined by the drug's dissociation constant or __ and the __ of the drug's environment

pKa
pH