Week 1.b - Perceptions, Personality and Emotions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 1.b - Perceptions, Personality and Emotions Deck (20)
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The process of organizing and interpreting information is known as..

our Perceptions


Is what we perceive the same as objective reality

No, What we perceive can be drastically different than objective reality


Are Perceptions easy to change



What is Selective Perception

When you form a belief about someone or something and then selectively choose to only acknowledge things that confirm that initial belief and ignore things that go against your bias


What is Projection

a DEFENSE MECHANISM people subconsciously employ in order to cope with difficult feelings or emotions. Psychological projection involves projecting undesirable feelings or emotions onto someone else, rather than admitting to or dealing with the unwanted feelings


What is the Halo Effect

The halo effect is a type of cognitive bias in which our overall impression of a person influences how we feel and think about his or her character. Essentially, your overall impression of a person ("He is nice!") impacts your evaluations of that person's specific traits ("He is also smart!")


What is Attribution Theory

Theory of how we try to understand someone else's behaviour by attaching feelings, thoughts and beliefs to their behaviour. For example, My coworker didn't return my email because they were very busy vs. my coworker didn't see the email because they don't like me


How do you avoid Perception Errors?

- self-reflect and identify your own stereotypes or biases; look closely at situational factors; Evaluate based on objective criteria (i.e. observed behaviours); avoid making rash judgements (take time to think)


What is Personality?

Your disposition - the way you form thoughts and respond to your environment ... "The dynamic organization of our “psychological systems”- mental processes that determine our unique adjustments to the environment"


Can Personality be measured? If so, how?

Yes. Through tests such as the Myers-Briggs Trait Inventory, the Big Five Model and the Dark Triad


What is measured in the MBTI?

extroverted /introverted, thinking/feeling, judging/perceiving, sensing/intuitive


What aspects of the personality are measured by the Big 5?

Think "OCEAN"

Openness (to new experiences)
Conscientious (i.e. being mindful of others' time, etc.)
Extroversion / Introversion
Agreeableness (how easygoing and adaptable you are)

- The Big 5 is the most commonly used personality assessment
- ranking high in a certain category can be beneficial in some professions - i,e, accountant and neuroticism


what are the 3 things in the "DarkTriad"

Narcissism, Machiavellianism, Psychopathy
Narcissism - Self-centredness
Machiavellianism - goal oriented to the extent at which they will do anything to achieve their goal
Psychopathy - Lack of empathy

- Take away: these characteristics can be found in organizations and in Sr. Mgmt positions


Other "newer" Personality tests

- Core Self-evaluation
- Self-monitoring
- Proactive Personality


Define Emotional Labour and Example

An employee’s expression of organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work
- example: server has to be friendly even when customer is rude


The conflict between experienced emotions and emotions expressed to conform to display rules is known as

Emotional dissonance


A person’s ability to perceive emotions in the self and others is

Emotional Intelligence


Emotional Regulation is

Strategies people employ to change their emotions
(Important in decision making, it gets better with age)


Global Implications:
of Perceptions

If people are seeing different things, they might be looking at the world differently e.g. Individualist vs. Collectivist societies (picture example)


Global Implications:
of Emotions

Differences across cultures in the way people experience emotions and express them
for example, stoicism / lack of emotion is common in Japan - because of this, Major depression is often seen as having starkly different symptoms (more physiological i.e. back pain, chronic fatigue, nausea) than cases of major depression in a western country