Flashcards in Week 1.b - Perceptions, Personality and Emotions Deck (20)
The process of organizing and interpreting information is known as..
Is what we perceive the same as objective reality
No, What we perceive can be drastically different than objective reality
Are Perceptions easy to change
What is Selective Perception
When you form a belief about someone or something and then selectively choose to only acknowledge things that confirm that initial belief and ignore things that go against your bias
What is Projection
a DEFENSE MECHANISM people subconsciously employ in order to cope with difficult feelings or emotions. Psychological projection involves projecting undesirable feelings or emotions onto someone else, rather than admitting to or dealing with the unwanted feelings
What is the Halo Effect
The halo effect is a type of cognitive bias in which our overall impression of a person influences how we feel and think about his or her character. Essentially, your overall impression of a person ("He is nice!") impacts your evaluations of that person's specific traits ("He is also smart!")
What is Attribution Theory
Theory of how we try to understand someone else's behaviour by attaching feelings, thoughts and beliefs to their behaviour. For example, My coworker didn't return my email because they were very busy vs. my coworker didn't see the email because they don't like me
How do you avoid Perception Errors?
- self-reflect and identify your own stereotypes or biases; look closely at situational factors; Evaluate based on objective criteria (i.e. observed behaviours); avoid making rash judgements (take time to think)
What is Personality?
Your disposition - the way you form thoughts and respond to your environment ... "The dynamic organization of our “psychological systems”- mental processes that determine our unique adjustments to the environment"
Can Personality be measured? If so, how?
Yes. Through tests such as the Myers-Briggs Trait Inventory, the Big Five Model and the Dark Triad
What is measured in the MBTI?
extroverted /introverted, thinking/feeling, judging/perceiving, sensing/intuitive
What aspects of the personality are measured by the Big 5?
Openness (to new experiences)
Conscientious (i.e. being mindful of others' time, etc.)
Extroversion / Introversion
Agreeableness (how easygoing and adaptable you are)
- The Big 5 is the most commonly used personality assessment
- ranking high in a certain category can be beneficial in some professions - i,e, accountant and neuroticism
what are the 3 things in the "DarkTriad"
Narcissism, Machiavellianism, Psychopathy
Narcissism - Self-centredness
Machiavellianism - goal oriented to the extent at which they will do anything to achieve their goal
Psychopathy - Lack of empathy
- Take away: these characteristics can be found in organizations and in Sr. Mgmt positions
Other "newer" Personality tests
- Core Self-evaluation
- Proactive Personality
Define Emotional Labour and Example
An employee’s expression of organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work
- example: server has to be friendly even when customer is rude
The conflict between experienced emotions and emotions expressed to conform to display rules is known as
A person’s ability to perceive emotions in the self and others is
Emotional Regulation is
Strategies people employ to change their emotions
(Important in decision making, it gets better with age)
If people are seeing different things, they might be looking at the world differently e.g. Individualist vs. Collectivist societies (picture example)