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Flashcards in Week 1-4 Deck (69)
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Define: Ethics

Ethics is a branch of philosophy and is concerned with what is morally good and bad, right and wrong


Define: Morals

character and standards of behaviour


Define: Values

ideals against which we judge the significance and importance of things


Explain: Ethical dilemma

An ethical dilemma occurs when there is a difference in opinion or understanding of what is right or wrong, where there is a choice, decision or action to be taken where few or all of the options may be unattractive or less than desirable


What are the 3 main Ethical theories

Teleology (utilitarianism)
Rawl's theory of justice


Define: Teleology

is referred to as results-oriented ethics
- Relative
- consequentialism

eg. taking a life might be right or wrong depending on the circumstances


Define: Deontology

Intrinsic ethical absolutes

eg. Taking a life is always wrong


What are the 2 key theorists in Deontology

Kant and Ross


Define: Bioethics

the systematic study of the moral dimensions-including moral vision, decisions, conduct and policies- of the life sciences and health care, employing a variety of methodologies in an interdisciplinary setting


Explain: Rawl's theory of justice

it combines the strengths of utilitarianism and deontology

Two fundamental principles:
- Each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive total system of equal basic liberties
- Social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so they are of the greatest benefit to the least advantaged


What are the 4 Ethical Principles



Define: Non-maleficence

Do no harm
Refrain from deliberately inflicting harm on a person or self


Define: Beneficence

Actively bring about a benefit for a person


Define: Autonomy

refers to the capacity to make informed decisions about ones life in order to determine for oneself whether or not the course of action is in ones best interest


Define: Justice

acting fairly


Define: Veracity

is based on the principle of truth telling, grounded in respect for persons and the concept of autonomy


Define: Paternalism

this is the interference by an individual with another person against their will with the claim that the person interfered with will be better or protected from harm


What are the categories of Law

Statue law (inc. criminal)
Common law
Civil law


What are the levels of law



Laws from what part of the legal system apply to the whole of Australia

Laws passed down by the Parliament of the Commonwealth


When was the Nuremberg Code developed



Explain: Nuremburg Trials

It was the legal trials of the Nazi doctors at Nuremberg that conducted medical
experiments on thousands of concentration camp prisoners
without their consent. Most of the participants of these
experiments died or were permanently disabled as a result


Who developed the 4 principles of bioethics

Beauchamp and Childress (2008)


The ICM International definition of the Midwife is....

A midwife is a person who has successfully completed a midwifery education programme that is duly recognized in the country where it is located and that is based on the ICM Essential Competencies for Basic Midwifery Practice and the framework of the ICM Global Standards for Midwifery Education; who has acquired the requisite qualifications to be registered and/or legally licensed to practice midwifery and use the title ‘midwife’; and who demonstrates competency in the practice of midwifery.


Explain: National competency standards

The national competency standards for the midwife are the core competency standards by which your performance is assessed to obtain and retain your licence to practice as a midwife in Australia.

- The overarching framework for the competency standards is women-centred care, and the standards are underpinned by primary health care principles.
- There are four domains in the provision of woman centred care that the competency standards cover


What are the 4 domains of the midwifery competency standards

Legal and Professional Practice (1 and 2)
Midwifery Knowledge and Practice (3-6)
Midwifery as Primary Healthcare (7-10)
Reflective and Ethical Practice (11-14)


4 Midwifery Competency Standards

Explain: Legal and professional practice competencies

Competency 1: Function in accordance with legislation and common law affecting midwifery practice
- Element 1.1: Demonstrates and acts upon knowledge of legislation and common law pertinent to midwifery practice.
Cue – practices midwifery within the requirements of legislation and common law

Competency 2. Accepts accountability and responsibility for own actions within midwifery practice


4 Midwifery Competency Standards

Explain: Midwifery Knowledge and Practice competencies

Competency 3. Communicates information to facilitate decision making by women

Competency 4. Promotes safe and effective midwifery care

Competency 5. Assesses, plans, provides and evaluates safe and effective midwifery care

Competency 6. Assesses, plans, provides and evaluates safe and effective midwifery care for the woman and/or baby with complex cares.


4 Midwifery Competency Standards

Explain: Midwifery as Primary Healthcare Competencies

Competency 7. Advocates to protect the rights of women, families and communities in relation to maternity care.

Competency 8. Develops effective strategies to implement and support collaborative midwifery practice

Competency 9. Actively supports midwifery as a public health strategy

Competency 10. Ensures midwifery practice is culturally safe.


4 Midwifery Competency Standards

Explain: Reflective and Ethical Practice Competencies

Competency 11. Bases midwifery practice on ethical decision making

Competency 12. Identifies personal beliefs and develops these in ways that enhance midwifery practice

Competency 13. Acts to enhance the professional development of self and others

Competency 14. Uses research to inform midwifery practice