Flashcards in War Deck (26)
What is war?
Any organized, deliberate use of direct violence that results in at least 1,000 casualties per year
What is inter-state war?
War between states
Which are the three classifications of inter-state war?
-Hegemonic war: states dispute each other for control of the entire world order
-Total war: one state wages war on another to conquer and occupy its territory, and one state surrenders
-Limited war: one state carries out military actions to achieve an objective that's short of surrender or occupation
What is intra-state war?
War in which at least two factions within a state are trying to create a new government for the state
What is the Just War Theory?
A set of theoretical conditions to judge:
-the reasons to go to war
-the means used during war
Which are the two theories within the Just War Theory?
-Jus ad bellum
-Jus in bello
Which are the six conditions of Jus ad bellum?
-Probability of success
What does 'Just cause,' within Jus ad bellum, refer to?
The countering of aggressions and the protection of rights, and only certain governments are entitled to non-intervention
What does 'Right intention,' within Jus ad bellum, refer to?
The sole motivation for aggression must be morally appropriate
What does 'Proper authority,' within Jus ad bellum, refer to?
Only permissible to appropriate authorities & regimes
What does 'Probability of success,' within Jus ad bellum, refer to?
Only if there is a foresseable, positive impact on the situation at hand
What does 'Last resort,' within Jus ad bellum, refer to?
Only if peaceful alternatives have been exhausted
What does 'Proportionality,' within Jus ad bellum, refer to?
There must be an anticipated calculation of overall "goods" vs. overall "evils"
Which are the six conditions of Jus in bello?
-Obedience of weapon prohibitions
-Fair treatment of prisoners of war
-No means mala in se
What does 'Proportionality,' within Jus in bello, refer to?
Any use of force must be limited to the appropriate amount to achieving the overall aim/target
What does 'Discrimination,' within Jus in bello, refer to?
Use of weapons and violence overall must discriminate between combatants and non-combatants. Civilians or civilian property must never be deliberately targeted
What does 'Obedience of weapon prohibitions,' within Jus in bello, refer to?
No weapons internationally recognized to be forbidden must be employed
What does 'Fair treatment of prisoners of war,' within Jus in bello, refer to?
Enemy soldiers who surrender or become prisoners are no longer threats
What does 'No means mala in se,' within Jus in bello, refer to?
Weapons or methods that are "evil in themselves" may not be used
What does 'No reprisal,' within Jus in bello, refer to?
Violations of jus in bello from one warring party do not authorize other warring parties to violate jus in bello themselves
Which are the two causes of war?
Greed and grievance
What is grievance?
War occurs when grievances are sufficiently accute that conflict parties want to engage in instances of direct violence
What is greed?
War occurs when conflict parties come across atypical profitable opportunities for direct violence
When should we suspect grievances?
-Ethnic / religious conflict
When should we suspect greed?
-Atypical availaibility of resources
-Atypically low costs of war
-Atypically weak military capabilities