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Flashcards in War Deck (26)
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1

What is war?

Any organized, deliberate use of direct violence that results in at least 1,000 casualties per year

2

What is inter-state war?

War between states

3

Which are the three classifications of inter-state war?

-Hegemonic war: states dispute each other for control of the entire world order

-Total war: one state wages war on another to conquer and occupy its territory, and one state surrenders

-Limited war: one state carries out military actions to achieve an objective that's short of surrender or occupation

4

What is intra-state war?

War in which at least two factions within a state are trying to create a new government for the state

5

What is the Just War Theory?

A set of theoretical conditions to judge:

-the reasons to go to war
-the means used during war

6

Which are the two theories within the Just War Theory?

-Jus ad bellum
-Jus in bello

7

Which are the six conditions of Jus ad bellum?

-Just cause
-Right intention
-Proper authority
-Probability of success
-Last resort
-Proportionality

8

What does 'Just cause,' within Jus ad bellum, refer to?

The countering of aggressions and the protection of rights, and only certain governments are entitled to non-intervention

9

What does 'Right intention,' within Jus ad bellum, refer to?

The sole motivation for aggression must be morally appropriate

10

What does 'Proper authority,' within Jus ad bellum, refer to?

Only permissible to appropriate authorities & regimes

11

What does 'Probability of success,' within Jus ad bellum, refer to?

Only if there is a foresseable, positive impact on the situation at hand

12

What does 'Last resort,' within Jus ad bellum, refer to?

Only if peaceful alternatives have been exhausted

13

What does 'Proportionality,' within Jus ad bellum, refer to?

There must be an anticipated calculation of overall "goods" vs. overall "evils"

14

Which are the six conditions of Jus in bello?

-Proportionality
-Discrimination
-Obedience of weapon prohibitions
-Fair treatment of prisoners of war
-No means mala in se
-No reprisal

15

What does 'Proportionality,' within Jus in bello, refer to?

Any use of force must be limited to the appropriate amount to achieving the overall aim/target

16

What does 'Discrimination,' within Jus in bello, refer to?

Use of weapons and violence overall must discriminate between combatants and non-combatants. Civilians or civilian property must never be deliberately targeted

17

What does 'Obedience of weapon prohibitions,' within Jus in bello, refer to?

No weapons internationally recognized to be forbidden must be employed

18

What does 'Fair treatment of prisoners of war,' within Jus in bello, refer to?

Enemy soldiers who surrender or become prisoners are no longer threats

19

What does 'No means mala in se,' within Jus in bello, refer to?

Weapons or methods that are "evil in themselves" may not be used

20

What does 'No reprisal,' within Jus in bello, refer to?

Violations of jus in bello from one warring party do not authorize other warring parties to violate jus in bello themselves

21

Which are the two causes of war?

Greed and grievance

22

What is grievance?

War occurs when grievances are sufficiently accute that conflict parties want to engage in instances of direct violence

23

What is greed?

War occurs when conflict parties come across atypical profitable opportunities for direct violence

24

When should we suspect grievances?

-Ethnic / religious conflict
-Political repression
-Economic inequality

25

When should we suspect greed?

-Atypical availaibility of resources
-Atypically low costs of war
-Atypically weak military capabilities

26

Whicha are the three main causes of inter-state war?

-Individuals running countries
-Domestic institutions
-Power dynamics and distributions