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Lymph

3L of fluid that enter lymphatic capillaries.

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Lymph contains solutes from two sources

A) substances in plasma: ions, gas, nutrients, proteins
B) substances derived from cells: hormones, enzymes, waste

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Lacteals

Lymphatic system absorbs lipids from digestive tract. In small intestine

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Chyle

Lipids enter lacteals then pass into venous circulation. Lymph called chyle.

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Lymphatic system includes

Lymph, lymphatic vessels, lymphatic tissue, nodules, nodes, tonsils, spleen, thymus

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Lymphatic capillaries

Begin as small, dead-end tubes

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Lymphatic vessels

Resemble small veins.

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Three major mechanisms for moving lymph

1) contraction of lymphatic vessels
2) contraction of skeletal muscles
3)thoracic pressure changes

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Lymph nodes

Round, oval, bean shaped bodies. Filter lymph!!!!

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Flow of lymph

Capillaries, vessels, nodes, trunk, duct

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Lymphatic trunk

Vessels converge to form larger vessel (trunks) that drain major portion of body

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Jugular trunk

Drains head and neck

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Subclavian trunk

Drains upper limbs, thoracic wall, mammary glands

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Bronchomediastinal trunks

Drain thoracic organs and deep thoracic wall

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Intestinal trunks

Drain abdominal organs

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Lumbar trunks

Drain lower limbs, pelicans and abdominal walls, ovaries, tested, kidneys, adrenal glands

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Lymphatic ducts

Lymphatic trunks connect to form ducts

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Right lymphatic duct

20% of people: three trunks join to form a short duct that joins right thoracic vein

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Thoracic duct

Largest. Drains lymph from right side inferior to thorax and entire left side of body

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Cisternae chyli

In a some people, lymphatic trunks form a sac

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Two types of lymphocytes

B cells and T cells

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Reticular fibers

Makes up lymphatic tissue. Fine collagen fibers. Lymphocytes attach and filter lymph

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Nonencapsulated

Lymphatic tissue that is not surrounded by a connective tissue capsule

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Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue
MALT

Aggregations of nonencapsulated lymphatic tissue. Found in and beneath mucous membranes lining digestive, respiratory urinary and reproductive tracts.

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Examples of MALT

Diffuse lymphatic tissue, nodules, tonsils.

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Lymphatic organs with a capsule

Nodes, spleen, thymus

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Diffuse lymphatic tissue

Contains dispersed lymphocytes, macrophages. No clear boundary, blends in with surrounding tissues. Within nodes and spleen

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Lymphatic nodules

Denser arrangements of lymphatic tissue. Numerous in loose connective tissue of digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive

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Peyer patches

Nodules in distal half of small intestine and appendix

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Lymphatic follicles

Lymphatic nodules found in nodes and spleen