Flashcards in Urinary system Deck (33)
primarily responsible for the removal of nitrogenous wastes
maintain electrolyte, acid-base, and fluid balances for the bloodAnd serve as the major homeostatic organ of the body
perform by filtering blood allowing toxins, metabolic wastes, and excess ions to leave the body in urine
urinary system consists of
paired kidneys and ureters and single urinary bladder and urethra
Why is the right kidney slightly lower than the left?
Due to the liver
What are the two kinds of nephrons?
Cortical nephrons and juxtamdullary nephrons
most numerous, making up ~ 85% of nephrons located entirely within the renal cortex except for small parts of their nephron loops that dip into the renal medulla
located deep in the cortex at the border with the medulla, their long nephron loops penetrate deeply into the medulla, *-play an important role in concentrating urine
Urirne formation is a result of 3 processes which include
filteration, reabsorption, secretion.
the role of the glomerulus, largely a passive process in which a portion of the blood passes from the glomerular capillary into the glomerular capsule
75% to 80% of tubular reabsorption occurs in
proximal convoluted tubule
essentially the reverse process of tubular reabsorption. Hydrogen, potassium ions, and creatinine move from the blood of the peritubular capillaries through the tubular cells into the filtrate to be disposed of in the urine
vessels to and from are both arterioles
Feeds the bed
Drains the bed
long, straight, highly connected vessels that run parallel and close to the long nephron loops. *Essential for the formation of concentrated urine
regulate the rate of filtration and systemic blood pressure
role of the JGC
receives urine via the ureters and discharges it via the urethra, stores it temporarily
The act of emptying the bladder
voiding or micturition
The opening between the bladder and the urethra is closed by two sphincters
internal urethral sphincter : composed of smooth muscle ..external urethral sphincter : composed of skeletal muscle
occurs when both sphincters, internal and external, relax and the detrusor contracts, all at the same time
lack of voluntary control over the external urethral sphincter. Normal in children under 2, in older children and adults it can result from spinal cord injuries or urinary tract pathology
Amonia is converted into less toxic...
he major calyces join to form
"basin" which collects urine and funnels it into the ureter.
contain smooth muscle and peristaltically propel urine from the renal pelvis to the bladder.
carries urine squeezed out of the bladder to the outside of the body.
Sphincter under voluntary control