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Flashcards in Urinary system Deck (33)
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1

primarily responsible for the removal of nitrogenous wastes

Urinary system

2

maintain electrolyte, acid-base, and fluid balances for the bloodAnd serve as the major homeostatic organ of the body

Kidneys

3

perform by filtering blood allowing toxins, metabolic wastes, and excess ions to leave the body in urine

Kidneys

4

urinary system consists of

paired kidneys and ureters and single urinary bladder and urethra

5

Why is the right kidney slightly lower than the left?

Due to the liver

6

What are the two kinds of nephrons?

Cortical nephrons and juxtamdullary nephrons

7

most numerous, making up ~ 85% of nephrons located entirely within the renal cortex except for small parts of their nephron loops that dip into the renal medulla

Cortical nephrons

8

located deep in the cortex at the border with the medulla, their long nephron loops penetrate deeply into the medulla, *-play an important role in concentrating urine

Juxtamedullary nephrons

9

Urirne formation is a result of 3 processes which include

filteration, reabsorption, secretion.

10

the role of the glomerulus, largely a passive process in which a portion of the blood passes from the glomerular capillary into the glomerular capsule

filteration

11

75% to 80% of tubular reabsorption occurs in

proximal convoluted tubule

12

essentially the reverse process of tubular reabsorption. Hydrogen, potassium ions, and creatinine move from the blood of the peritubular capillaries through the tubular cells into the filtrate to be disposed of in the urine

secretion

13

vessels to and from are both arterioles

glomerulus

14

Feeds the bed

Afferent artiriole

15

Drains the bed

Efferent artiriole

16

long, straight, highly connected vessels that run parallel and close to the long nephron loops. *Essential for the formation of concentrated urine

vasa recta

17

regulate the rate of filtration and systemic blood pressure

role of the JGC

18

receives urine via the ureters and discharges it via the urethra, stores it temporarily

Urinary bladder

19

The act of emptying the bladder

voiding or micturition

20

The opening between the bladder and the urethra is closed by two sphincters

internal urethral sphincter : composed of smooth muscle ..external urethral sphincter : composed of skeletal muscle

21

occurs when both sphincters, internal and external, relax and the detrusor contracts, all at the same time

micturition

22

lack of voluntary control over the external urethral sphincter. Normal in children under 2, in older children and adults it can result from spinal cord injuries or urinary tract pathology

incontinence

23

Amonia is converted into less toxic...

urea

24

he major calyces join to form

renal pelvis

25

"basin" which collects urine and funnels it into the ureter.

renal pelvis

26

contain smooth muscle and peristaltically propel urine from the renal pelvis to the bladder.

ureters

27

carries urine squeezed out of the bladder to the outside of the body.

urethra

28

involuntary sphincter

internal sphincter

29

Sphincter under voluntary control

external sphincter

30

Blood is drained from the glomerulus by the

efferent arteriols