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Flashcards in Urinalysis/S lab lab Deck (133)
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1

3 yr m-neutered canine
1) WBC-65.0 x 10^3
2) RBC-1.95 x 10^6
3) Hb-5.85 g/dl
4) HCT 16.3%
5) MCV 83fl
6) MCHC 35.8 g/dl

RBC:

WBC:

Conclusion:

1) severe leukocytosis
2) severe anemia
3) severe anemia
4) severe anemia
5) slightly increased
6) WNL
RBC: Anemia with 3+ polychromasia, suspect regenerative but need retic count to confirm because of increased polychromataphils, spherocytes seen and agglutination
WBC: Severe leukocytosis with hypersegmented neutrophilia, an increase in reactive lymphocytes, and over 5 nRBCs
Conclusion: Severe anemia-suspect regenerative anemia with severe leukocytosis, hypersegmented neutrophilia, and nucleated RBCs

2

When recording a RBC differential what do you write in size?

1) if anisocytosis-micro/macrocytic
2) field of view-OIF
3) degree 2+

3

When recording a RBC differential what do you write in shape?

1) spherocytes
2) leptocytes
3) degree
4) field-OIF

4

When recording a RBC differential what do you write in color?

1) polychromasia/hypochromasia
2) degree

5

When recording a RBC differential what do you write in distribution?

1) mild/severe rouleaux, agglutination, anemia
2) field-LPF

6

When recording a RBC differential what do you write in abnormalities/inclusions?

1) more than 5nRBCs 3/NRBCs/100 WBC
2) reactive lymphocytes
3) hypersegmentation
4) field-OIF

7

Recording platelets
platelets:
quantity:
morphology:
estimate:

check for any in feathered edge first
platelets: WNL, thrombocytosis, thrombocytopenia
quantity: #/OIF-adequate, increased, decreased
morphology: micro/macroplatelets with degree
estimate: #/microliter dog 417/10=41.7=42 42/OIF 42 x 15,000=630,000/microliter

8

Formula for corrected WBC count:

WBC(65,000) x 100/ 100 +nRBCS(9)
5,500,00/109=59,633.027=59,600

9

Normal values for urine SG

dog: 1.019-1.045
cat: 1.020-1.040

10

What is isosthenuria and when is it seen?

isosthenuria occurs when the urine SG is approaches that of glomerular filtrate (1.008-1.012), animals with renal disease

11

What is the normal transparency of urine? There is one exception what species is it?

its transparent or clear, equines

12

How can noting the odor of urine be beneficial?

It can indicate or give a clue to a disease, sweet-diabetes, ammonia-cystitis

13

An excess of urea or other nitrogenous wastes in the blood as a result of kidney insufficiency

azotemia

14

Under what conditions may urine be foamy?

When urine is shaken it produces a greenish-yellow foam

15

Why do you make buffy coat smears? What do you see in a buffy coat?

to see mast cells, WBCs and platelets

16

What method of collection is preferred for a microscopic examination, why?

The best samples for sedimentation are morning samples or samples collected after several hours of water deprivation because such samples are more concentrated and the chances of finding formed elements are increased-cystocentesis

17

What are the components of urine sediment?

casts, crystals, epithelial cells, RBCs, WBCs, mucus threads and in males/recently bred females spermatoza

18

What does a positive ketone indicate with abnormalites? What is also positive with ketones and what does it indicate?

(metabolism of fat) excessive amounts of fat catabolism to provide energy its associated with diabetes mellitus so also glucose would be positive

19

Determine in your labs normal volume to be analyzed and if it is different?

make a notation

20

Always note method of _______

collection

21

Refractometer calibrated to ______ with distilled water

1.000

22

What do you note in macroscopic?

color(yellow, light/dark yellow, amber, red, brown, colorless)
clarity(cloudy, turbid, flocculent-degrees slightly, moderate, marked/severe)
odor(normal, strong, rancid, ammonia)

23

How do you remove excess urine from reagent pad?

tilting strip on paper towel

24

For sediment how many mls do you place in a conical tube?

5 mls

25

What do you centrifuge at and for how long?

1200rpm for 5/6mins

26

Decant all the supernatant but _____ml

0.3-0.5ml

27

T/F After centrifuging to mix the sediment you must mix it with the reserved supernatant by swirling it.

false-tapping

28

When looking at a microscopic urine sample what do you do first? (4 things)

1) scan on low power, low light source for casts and crystal
2) observe for clumps of epithelial
3) casts-differentiate and record #/LPF (if only a few are seen you may note #/HPF)
4) crystals-differentiate and record #/LPF (if only a few are seen you may note #/HPF)

29

When looking at a microscopic urine sample what do you do second?

1) observe at least 10 fields
2) high power and slightly higher amount of light

30

How do you record?
RBC-
WBC-

RBC- #/HPF
WBC- #/HPF