Flashcards in Urinalysis/S lab lab Deck (133)
3 yr m-neutered canine
1) WBC-65.0 x 10^3
2) RBC-1.95 x 10^6
3) Hb-5.85 g/dl
4) HCT 16.3%
5) MCV 83fl
6) MCHC 35.8 g/dl
1) severe leukocytosis
2) severe anemia
3) severe anemia
4) severe anemia
5) slightly increased
RBC: Anemia with 3+ polychromasia, suspect regenerative but need retic count to confirm because of increased polychromataphils, spherocytes seen and agglutination
WBC: Severe leukocytosis with hypersegmented neutrophilia, an increase in reactive lymphocytes, and over 5 nRBCs
Conclusion: Severe anemia-suspect regenerative anemia with severe leukocytosis, hypersegmented neutrophilia, and nucleated RBCs
When recording a RBC differential what do you write in size?
1) if anisocytosis-micro/macrocytic
2) field of view-OIF
3) degree 2+
When recording a RBC differential what do you write in shape?
When recording a RBC differential what do you write in color?
When recording a RBC differential what do you write in distribution?
1) mild/severe rouleaux, agglutination, anemia
When recording a RBC differential what do you write in abnormalities/inclusions?
1) more than 5nRBCs 3/NRBCs/100 WBC
2) reactive lymphocytes
check for any in feathered edge first
platelets: WNL, thrombocytosis, thrombocytopenia
quantity: #/OIF-adequate, increased, decreased
morphology: micro/macroplatelets with degree
estimate: #/microliter dog 417/10=41.7=42 42/OIF 42 x 15,000=630,000/microliter
Formula for corrected WBC count:
WBC(65,000) x 100/ 100 +nRBCS(9)
Normal values for urine SG
What is isosthenuria and when is it seen?
isosthenuria occurs when the urine SG is approaches that of glomerular filtrate (1.008-1.012), animals with renal disease
What is the normal transparency of urine? There is one exception what species is it?
its transparent or clear, equines
How can noting the odor of urine be beneficial?
It can indicate or give a clue to a disease, sweet-diabetes, ammonia-cystitis
An excess of urea or other nitrogenous wastes in the blood as a result of kidney insufficiency
Under what conditions may urine be foamy?
When urine is shaken it produces a greenish-yellow foam
Why do you make buffy coat smears? What do you see in a buffy coat?
to see mast cells, WBCs and platelets
What method of collection is preferred for a microscopic examination, why?
The best samples for sedimentation are morning samples or samples collected after several hours of water deprivation because such samples are more concentrated and the chances of finding formed elements are increased-cystocentesis
What are the components of urine sediment?
casts, crystals, epithelial cells, RBCs, WBCs, mucus threads and in males/recently bred females spermatoza
What does a positive ketone indicate with abnormalites? What is also positive with ketones and what does it indicate?
(metabolism of fat) excessive amounts of fat catabolism to provide energy its associated with diabetes mellitus so also glucose would be positive
Determine in your labs normal volume to be analyzed and if it is different?
make a notation
Always note method of _______
Refractometer calibrated to ______ with distilled water
What do you note in macroscopic?
color(yellow, light/dark yellow, amber, red, brown, colorless)
clarity(cloudy, turbid, flocculent-degrees slightly, moderate, marked/severe)
odor(normal, strong, rancid, ammonia)
How do you remove excess urine from reagent pad?
tilting strip on paper towel
For sediment how many mls do you place in a conical tube?
What do you centrifuge at and for how long?
1200rpm for 5/6mins
Decant all the supernatant but _____ml
T/F After centrifuging to mix the sediment you must mix it with the reserved supernatant by swirling it.
When looking at a microscopic urine sample what do you do first? (4 things)
1) scan on low power, low light source for casts and crystal
2) observe for clumps of epithelial
3) casts-differentiate and record #/LPF (if only a few are seen you may note #/HPF)
4) crystals-differentiate and record #/LPF (if only a few are seen you may note #/HPF)
When looking at a microscopic urine sample what do you do second?
1) observe at least 10 fields
2) high power and slightly higher amount of light