Urinalysis Flashcards Preview

Midwifery Pratical Exam January 2021 > Urinalysis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Urinalysis Deck (22)
Loading flashcards...

What is urinalysis?

According to the skills for midwifery practice urinalysis is the testing of both the physical characteristics and the composition of freshly voided urine and is undertaken for the purposes of:

-Screening for systemic and renal disease
-Diagnosis:of a suspected condition
-Management and planning:as a baseline and for planning and monitoring care


What would you do before obtaining a urine sample?

As part of infection control it is vital to wash hands and don PPE as we are handling bodily fluids. As part of the NMC Code informed consent must be gained prior to obtaining the sample.


What are the three things in which we are looking for prior to testing?





What could urine with a sweet odour indicate?

Presence of ketones


What can urobilinogen indicate?

Liver abnormalities/excessive haemolysis


What does bright red urine indicate?

Bleeding from the bladder


What does dark yellow urine indicate?



Urine with a fishy/offensive smell may indicate what?



Protein in urine (proteinuria) can indicate what?

Contaminated specimen, renal disease or pre-eclampsia


What can nitrates in urine indicate?

UTI (Urinary tract infection)


What can glucose in urine (glycosuria) indicate?

Blood glucose levels rise or if renal absorption lowers.

May indicate gestational diabetes or diabetes, can also be a normal physiological process in pregnancy due to glomerular filtration rate


What is an MSSU?

Mid-Stream Specimen of Urine


What can blood in urine (haematuria) indicate?

May indicate infection, trauma, tumour or calculi. It may be due to contamination from the vagina or haemorrhoids


What does green urine indicate?

Pseudomonas infection


Ketones in urine (ketonuria) can indicate what?

Excessive breakdown of body fats. This may occur due to fasting,dehydration,vomiting or uncontrolled diabetes


Why do we carry out urinalysis?

Non-invasive and reliable for diagnosing signs and symptoms of diseases in early stages.

Enables monitoring of well-being and deviations from the norm.


What does very dark/yellow/brown urine indicate? (Maybe frothy too)

Bilirubinuria (condition of the liver)


What is a regency stick?

Are dip sticks that are used to dip into urine to determine whether the urine sample if normal, or contains characteristics so that a diagnosis can be given


Explain how you would test a specimen of urine?

Ensuring hands are washed and PPE is worn.

1) Observe the colour, clarity and odour of the urine first
2) Ensure the regency stick is within date
3) Insert the stick into the urine so it is fully submerged
4) Quickly pull it out so that the colours on the stick do not run
5) Place the stick next to the bottle of regency sticks to interpret results
6) Dispose or urine correctly
7) Document findings
8) If any concerns with the urine have been recognised these must be sent off to pathology for further testing
9) Discuss the findings with woman and answer any questions to which she may have


What is an early morning specimen of urine?

The first urine sample of the day


When would we carry out urinalysis?

-At each antenatal visit
-On admission to hospital for any reason as a baseline observation
-Specific maternal disorders or treatment e.g hypertensive disease,diabetes
-Clinical symptoms such as raised blood pressure
-Altered micturition


What components does urine consist of?

Urine has a pH of 4.5-8 and is mainly made up of water (96%) with 4% dissolved substances such as:
-Uric acid,sodium, potassium, sulphates
-Cellular components such as epithelial cells, leukocytes
-Protein and glucose are present in tiny amounts, usually undetectable by routine testing