What are some examples of pathologies of the upper GI tract?
What is the upper GI tract formed from?
What is oesophageal reflux?
Reflux of gastric acid into the oesophagus
What is the pathology of oesophageal reflux?
Thickening of squamous epithelium
Ulceration of oesophageal epithelium with severe reflux
What is is called when the oesophagus passes through the diaphram into the stomach?
What does the squamous epithelium of the oesopahgus thicken because of oesophageal reflux?
Try to increase the thickeness to protect itself, but it is rapidly overcame
What are complications of oesophageal reflux?
Healing by fibrosis (after ulceration)
Why is the oesophagus healing by fibrosis after oesophageal reflux a problem?
Stricture (narrowing in oesophagus because muscle has been replaced by fibrous tissue)
Impaired oesophageal motility (food and liquid accumulate in oesophagus)
What is stricture?
Narrowing in the oesophagus
What is Barrett's metaplasia?
Type of metaplasia where transformation from squamous epithelium to glandular epithelium occurs
What is an abnormal change in the nature of a tissue called?
What is Barrett's oesophagus associated with?
Increased risk of cancer, it is a pre-malignant condition
What is oesophageal cancer?
Type of cancer affecting the oesophagus
What is the most common cancer of the alimentary tract?
What is the second most common cancer of the alimentary tract?
What is the third most common cancer of the alimentary tract?
Is incidence of oesophageal cancer rising or decreasing?
What can be said about environmental and genetic components of oesophageal cancer?
Linked with environmental factors, does not seem to have a big genetic component
What are the 2 histological types of oesophageal cancer?
Squamous carcinoma is cancer of what type of cell?
Adenocarcinoma is cancer of what type of cell?
How does adenocarcinoma occur in the oesophagus?
If squamous cells of oesophagus have changed to glandular, such as due to Barrett's oesophagus
What are risk factors for squamous carcinoma oesophageal cancer?
What are risk factors for adenocarcinoma oesophageal cancer?
What are some local effects of oesophageal cancer?
What are the different methods that oesophageal cancer can use to spread?
Direct (to surrounding tissues)
Lymphatic spead (to regional lymph nodes)
Blood spread (usually to the liver)
Where do most oesophageal tumours develop?
What is the prognosis of oesophageal cancer?
5 year survival rate less than 15%
Why is the 5 year survival rate of oesophageal cancer less than 15%?
Patients present with advanced disease at diagnosis, often with liver metastasis
What is gastritis?
Inflammation of the lining of the stomach