Upper GI Tract Pathology Flashcards Preview

07. Year 2: Alimentary System > Upper GI Tract Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Upper GI Tract Pathology Deck (58)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are some examples of pathologies of the upper GI tract?

Oesophageal reflux

Oesophageal cancer

Gastritis

Peptic ulceration

Gastric cancer

2

What is the upper GI tract formed from?

Oesophagus

Stomach

Duodenum

3

What is oesophageal reflux?

Reflux of gastric acid into the oesophagus

4

What is the pathology of oesophageal reflux?

Hiatus hernia

Thickening of squamous epithelium

Ulceration of oesophageal epithelium with severe reflux

5

What is is called when the oesophagus passes through the diaphram into the stomach?

Hiatus hernia

6

What does the squamous epithelium of the oesopahgus thicken because of oesophageal reflux?

Try to increase the thickeness to protect itself, but it is rapidly overcame

7

What are complications of oesophageal reflux?

Healing by fibrosis (after ulceration)

Barrett's oesophagus

8

Why is the oesophagus healing by fibrosis after oesophageal reflux a problem?

Stricture (narrowing in oesophagus because muscle has been replaced by fibrous tissue)

Impaired oesophageal motility (food and liquid accumulate in oesophagus)

Oesophageal obstruction

9

What is stricture?

Narrowing in the oesophagus

10

What is Barrett's metaplasia?

Type of metaplasia where transformation from squamous epithelium to glandular epithelium occurs

11

What is an abnormal change in the nature of a tissue called?

Metaplasia

12

What is Barrett's oesophagus associated with?

Increased risk of cancer, it is a pre-malignant condition

13

What is oesophageal cancer?

Type of cancer affecting the oesophagus

14

What is the most common cancer of the alimentary tract?

Colorectal cancer

15

What is the second most common cancer of the alimentary tract?

Stomach cancer

16

What is the third most common cancer of the alimentary tract?

Oesophageal cancer

17

Is incidence of oesophageal cancer rising or decreasing?

Rising

18

What can be said about environmental and genetic components of oesophageal cancer?

Linked with environmental factors, does not seem to have a big genetic component

19

What are the 2 histological types of oesophageal cancer?

Squamous carcinoma

Adenocarcinoma

20

Squamous carcinoma is cancer of what type of cell?

Squamous cell

21

Adenocarcinoma is cancer of what type of cell?

Glandular tissue

22

How does adenocarcinoma occur in the oesophagus?

If squamous cells of oesophagus have changed to glandular, such as due to Barrett's oesophagus

23

What are risk factors for squamous carcinoma oesophageal cancer?

Smoking

Alcohol

Dietary carcinogens

24

What are risk factors for adenocarcinoma oesophageal cancer?

Barrett's oesophagus

Obesity

25

What are some local effects of oesophageal cancer?

Obstruction

Ulceration

Perforation

26

What are the different methods that oesophageal cancer can use to spread?

Direct (to surrounding tissues)

Lymphatic spead (to regional lymph nodes)

Blood spread (usually to the liver)

27

Where do most oesophageal tumours develop?

Distal oesophagus

28

What is the prognosis of oesophageal cancer?

Very poor

5 year survival rate less than 15%

29

Why is the 5 year survival rate of oesophageal cancer less than 15%?

Patients present with advanced disease at diagnosis, often with liver metastasis

30

What is gastritis?

Inflammation of the lining of the stomach