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1

Etiology?  Primary mode of transmission?  Primary site of infection?  How is diagnosis made?

 

Pseudoloma neurophilia

Ingestion of spores is primary means of transmission

Xenomas (parasite-infected cells) primarily occur in CNS.  Inflammation is usually minimal.

Presumptive diagnosis on clinical signs.  Definitive diagnosis by finding characteristic spores in wet mounts or histology.  Microsporidian spores are birefringent, oval, usually with a prominent refractile vacuole.  Spores are Gram positive in tissue smears or histology.  Xenomas must be differentiated from lesions caused by Ichthyophthirius multifilis.

1) Baker DG, ed. 2007. Flynn’s Parasites of Laboratory Animals, 2nd edition. Blackwell Publishing, Iowa, USA. Chapter 7 – Parasites of Fishes, pp. 80-84.
2) Murray et al. 2011. Transmission, diagnosis, and recommendations for control of Pseudoloma neurophilia infections in laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio) facilities. Comp Med 61(4):322-329.
Domain 1; Secondary Species – Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

2

Etiology? Pathogenesis?  Diagnosis?

Presumptive diagnosis is Ichthyophthirius multifilis (White Spot disease)

White spot is the trophont, encysted feeding stage.  This eventually breaks off and drops to bottom of aquarium and attaches to some substrate, now called a tomont.  It undergoes mitotic divisions to form hundreds of ciliated theronts that are released into the water to attach to a new host.

Definitive diagnosis is by observing distinctive horshoe-shaped macronucleus, and observing parasites under epithelium of gills or skin.

3

What is the mechanism of action for propofol?  Species differences?  Side effects?  Immune sysytem effects?

GABAA agonist

Clearance in greyhounds slower than other breeds.  Less efective in rabbit than other species.  Repeated dosing in cats causes Heinz body formation.

Decreases cerebral oxygen consumption, reduces intracranial pressure, and has anticonvulsive activity.  Also a potent antioxidant, has anti-inflammatory properties, and is a brochodilator.

Attenuates proinflammatory cytokines, alters nitric oxide expression, and decreases neutrophil activation in a rat model of endotoxemia.

4

Which drugs are GABAA agonists?

 

  • Barbiturates (Thiopental, Thiamylal, Methohexital, Pentobarbital)
  • chloral hydrate
  • alpha-chlorulose
  • tribromoethanol (TBE)
  • propofol
  • metomidate
  • etomidate
  • Steroid anesthetics (alphaxalone, alphadolone)
  • Benzodiazepines

 

5

 Mechanism of action for acepromazine?  Side effects?  Species differences?

Acepromazine is a phenothiazine derivative which antagonizes D2 dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia and limbic portions of the forebrain.

Little direct evidence that acepromazine potentiates seizure activity, as is commonly thought.  Does cause hyperglycemia, reduced hematocrit, reduced gastric secretory activity.

IM chlorpromazine is contraindicated in rabbits due to severe myositis and paralysis.

6

How is the blood supply from the coronary artery of swine similar to that of humans?

It is right-side dominant and lacks preexisting collateral circulation.

This makes the coronary blood flow similar to 90% of that of the human population, unlike the dog.  The elctrophysioologic system is more neurogenic than myogenic, and there are more Purkinje fibers.  The left azygous (hemizygous) vein drains the intercostal vessels into the cornoary sinus unlike most other species.  This vessel may be ligated or blocked to provide total coronary vessel drainage into the coronary sinus.

Reference: Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 15 - Biology and Diseases of Swine, p. 618.
Domain 3; Primary Species – Pig (Sus scrofa)

7

4. Which of the following is the least likely cause of a positive tuberculin skin test result in a common marmoset?

 

a. Early-stage infection with measles virus
b. Prior Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination
c. Prior exposure to Freund complete adjuvant
d. Infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria
e. Trauma during injection
 

a. Early-stage infection with measles virus

Measles may result in false negative reactions due to immunosuppression.  Early or advanced tuberculosis may also result in false-negative reactions.

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 16 – Nonhuman Primates, p. 740
2) Bennett BT, Abee CR, Henrickson R, eds.  1998.  Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  Chapter 2 – Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, pp. 85-86.
3) Wachtman et al. 2011. Colonization with nontuberculous mycobacteria is associated with positive tuberculin skin test reactions in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Comp Med 61(3):278-284.
Domain 4; Secondary Species – Marmoset/Tamarins (Callitrichidae)

8

Which of the following parameters is least predictive for determining obesity and related health problems in this species?
                                                                                
a. BMI
b. Haemoglobin A1c levels
c. Abdominal skin fold thickness
d. Body weight
e. Serum fructosamine levels

d. Body weight

1)  Bauer SA, Arndt TP, Leslie KE, Pearl DL, Turner PV. 2011. Obesity in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques: A comparative review of the condition and its implications for research. Comp Med. 61(6):514-526.
2)  SA Bauer, KE Leslie, DL Pearl, J Fournier, PV Turner. 2010. Retrospective case-control study of hyperglycemia in group-housed, mature female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). J Med Primatol, 39:408-416.
Domain 1; Primary Species

9

6. According to the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations, for what period of time must an official USDA tag be held after the death or euthanasia of a cat?

1 year

Reference:  Animal Welfare Act, 9 CFR Part 2 – Regulations, Subpart E – Identification of Animals, §2.55 (b) Removal and disposal of tags (1-1-01 Edition, p. 33).
Domain 5; Secondary Species – Cat (Felis domestica)

10

Which organization is composed of research professionals with a mission dedicated to balancing animal welfare and excellence in basic and applied scientific inquiry?

Scientists Center for Animal Welfare

1) Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council.  1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.  National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. Appendix B: Selected Organizations, pp. 108, 110-112
2) http://www.scaw.com/
3) http://www.aalas.org/resources/branches-affil.aspx 
Domain 6

11

The control of the following substance is administered and enforced by which agency(ies)?

Administered by the Secretary of Health and Human Services and enforced by the Drug Enforcement Agency

1) Fish RE, Brown MJ, Danneman PJ, Karas AZ, eds. 2008. Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego CA. Chapter 25 – Regulatory Issues
Domain 5

12

10. Which of the following viruses causes disease with both zoonotic and anthroponotic forms in ferrets and humans?
a. Orthomyxovirus
b. Paramyxovirus
c. Parvovirus
d. Rhabdovirus
e. Rotavirus

a. Orthomyxovirus

Influenza is caused by an orthomyxovirus that is transmissable from humans to ferrets and ferrets to humans.  Human influenza viruses A and B are pathogenic to ferrets.  Ferrets are also susceptible to avian, phocine, equine, and swine influenza, although only swine influenza causes clinical signs.

Clinical signs appear 48 hours postinfection.  Diagnosis is based on typical clinical signs and recovery within 4 days.

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 13 – Biology and Diseases of Ferrets, pp.  498-501.
2) Quesenberry, KE, Carpenter, JW, eds.  Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents – Clinical Medicine and Surgery, 2nd edition.  Saunders, St. Louis, MO.  Chapter 7 – Respiratory Diseases, pp. 74-75.
Domain 1; Secondary Species – Ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

13

List some infectious disease research of this species.

 

 

 

  • Respiratory infection with paramyxovirus
  • Respiratory syncytial virus
  • Parainfluenza 3
  • Measles
  • Human adenovirus
  • Only animal model of ocular adenovirus keratoconjunctivitis
  • Susceptibility to human adenovirus has led to their use in adenoviral-mediated gene therapy srtudies involving cystic fibrosis, erythropoiesis stimulation, cancer treatment such as cervical carcinoma
  • Scrub typhus
  • Screen antifilarial drugs
  • Leishmania donovani
  • Echinococcus multilocularis
  • Natural reservoir for Lyme disease, hantavirus, VEE

Cotton rat is pictured (Sigmodon hispidus)

1)  Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 7 – Biology and Diseases of Other Rodents, pp. 270-271.
2)  Suckow MA, Weisbroth SH, Franklin CL, eds.  2006.  The Laboratory Rat, 2nd edition.  Elsevier Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 30 – Wild and Black Rats, pp. 869-870
Domain 3; Tertiary Species – Other Rodents

 

14

12. The Interagency Research Animal Committee has recommended restricting use of which mouse identification method to situations where no other method of identifying the animals would be appropriate?

Toe clipping

The Guide says: "It may be the preferred method for neonatal mice up to 7 days of age as it appears to have few adverse effects on behavior and well-being at this age."

1) Final Rule: Good Laboratory Practice Regulations; Minor Amendments: Toe Clipping (http://awic.nal.usda.gov/final-rule-good-laboratory-practice-regulations-minor-amendment-toe-clipping)
2) Applied Research Ethics National Association (ARENA) and Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW).  2002.  Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Guidebook.  2nd Edition.  OLAW, Bethesda, MD.  Section B.2.c. Husbandry, pp. 45-46.
3) National Research Council.  2011.  Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 8th ed.  National Academies Press, Washington D.C.  Chapter 3 - Environment, Housing and Management, p. 75.  
Domain 4; Primary Species – Mice (Mus musculus)

15

The life cycle of this parasite may be complete in how many days?

8-14 days

Myocoptes musculinus (female)

1) Metcalf P, Kelly A, Rice, KA, Wrighten R, Watson J. 2011 Effect of Sampling Strategy on the Detection of Fur Mites within a Naturally Infested Colony of Mice (Mus musculus) JAALAS 50(3): 337-343
2) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA. Chapter 3 – Biology and Diseases of mice, p. 104
Domain 1; Primary Species – Mus musculus

16

According to the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations, which of the following areas are exempt from inspection every 6 months by the IACUC?

 

a. Animal housing areas
b. Quarantine facilities
c. Animal areas containing free-living wild animals in their natural habitat
d. Animal study areas
e. Animal surgery areas
 

c. Animal areas containing free-living wild animals in their natural habitat

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 2 – Laws, Regulations, and Policies Affecting the Use of Laboratory Animals, pp. 21-22. 
2) Animal Welfare Act, 9 CFR Part 2 – Regulations, Subpart C – Research Facilities, §2.31(c)(3) Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).  (1-1-01 Edition, p. 21).
Domain 5

17

Which of the following laboratory animal species have hypsodontic molars?

 

a. Rats and mice
b. Gerbils and guinea pigs
c. Guinea pigs and rabbits
d. Mice and rabbits
 

c. Guinea pigs and rabbits

Note:  all rodents have hypsodontic incisors

1) Dontas et al. 2010. Malocclusion in aging Wistar rats. JAALAS 49(1):22-26
2) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 4 – Biology and Diseases of Rats, p. 124; Chapter 6 – Biology and Diseases of Guinea Pigs, p. 207; and Chapter 9 – Biology and Diseases of Rabbits, p. 331
3) Percy DH and Barthold SW.  2007.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd edition.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa. Chapter 1 – Mouse, p. 102; Chapter 2 – Rat, pp. 165; Chapter 4 – Gerbil, p. 213; Chapter 5 – Guinea Pig, p. 242; Chapter 6 – Rabbit, p. 303
Domain 1; Primary Species – Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), Secondary Species – Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus)

18

17. Which of the following drug classes are sedative hypnotics, have a very narrow therapeutic window, and have significant side effects in hamsters and gerbils?
a.   α2-adrenergic agonists
b.   Neuroleptics
c.   Barbiturates
d.   Dissociative agents 

c. Barbiturates

Pentobarbital (70 mg/kg IP) produces profound respiratory perturbations in hamsters, with decreased tidal and minute volumes, reduced breathing rate, and increased airway resistance.

Gerbils receiving 80 mg/kg pentobarbital exhibit profound hypothermia. 

Also, Marmota monax has profound cardiovascular depression with 30 mg/kg pentobarbital (and also with urethane, and chloralose/urethane)

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 22 – Preanesthesia, Anesthesia, Analgesia, and Euthanasia, pp.  957-959.
2) Fish RE, Brown MJ, Danneman PJ, Karas AZ, eds.  2008.  Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, 2nd ed.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  Chapter 11 – Anesthesia and Analgesia for Laboratory Rodents, pp. 280-281.
Domain 2; Secondary Species – Gerbil (Meriones spp.) and Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), Tertiary Species – Other Rodents

19

What is the major cause of morbidity and mortality of this species?

 

Phodopus sungorus (Dwarf or Djungarian hamster)

High incidence of spontantaneous neoplasia (1-10%), with female being more susceptible.  

Adenocarcinoma of mammary glands, adenocarcinoma of lungs, SCC of skin on muzzle being top three.

Other fun facts:  Dwarf hamsters have most compressed reproductive cycle of any eutherian mammal.  They can mate on the day of parturition and deliver the second litter while weaning the first, within a 36-day time period. 4 day estrus cycle, 18 day gestation. 

 

20

According to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, when using the device pictured, all of the following are important guidelines EXCEPT:

 

a. Restraint devices should not be considered a normal method of housing, and must be justified in the animal use protocol
b. The period of restraint should be the minimum required to accomplish the research objectives
c. Animals to be placed in restraint devices should be given training (with positive reinforcement) to adapt to the equipment and personnel
d. Animals that fail to adapt to the device should receive retraining whenever possible
e. Provision should be made for observation of the animal at appropriate intervals, as determined by the IACUC
 

d. Animals that fail to adapt to the device should receive retraining whenever possible

1) Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. 2011.  Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. p. 29.
2) http://www.unobv.com/Primate%20restrainer.html
Domain 5; Primary Species

21

Name two innate characteristics of this species that lend to major research application.

 

  1. Incomplete Circle of Willis thereby making them a model of stroke since they're more susceptible to cerebral infarction following unilateral ligation of the common carotid artery.
  2. Have spontaneous epileptiform seizures which mimic human idiopathis epilepsy.  Seizure-sensitive and seizure-resistant strains have been bred.

Mongolian gerbil - Meriones unguiculatus

Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 7 – Biology and Diseases of Other Rodents, p. 275.
2) Percy DH and Barthold SW.  2007.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd edition.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa.  Chapter 4 – Gerbil, p. 207.
Domain 3; Secondary Species – Gerbil (Meriones spp.)

 

22

21. Why is it important to remove organic matter from water prior to chlorination?  

Chlorination of water containing organic matter results in the formation of by-products such as trihalomethanes, some of which, for example, chloroform, may be cytotoxic, mutagenic, and/or carcinogenic.  Therefore, chlorination of RO-treated water, which has fewer organic contaminants, is preferred.  Chlorination by-products may be present without on-site chlorination, as many municipal water supplies use chlorine as a disinfectant. Although RO treatment will remove some by-products, small-molecular-weight compounds may pass through the RO membrane and are best removed by absorption using activated carbon.

2) Fox JG, Barthold SW, Davisson MT, Newcomer CE, Quimby FW, Smith AL, eds.  2007.  The Mouse in Biomedical Research, 2nd edition, Volume 3 – Normative Biology, Husbandry, and Models.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 9 – Design and Management of Research Facilities for Mice, pp. 306-309.
Domain 4

23

You are presented with a mouse carrying a mutation in a gene whose function is unknown to you.  Which of the following databases WOULD NOT be useful in determining the function of the gene?

 

a.   OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man)
b.   PubMed
c.  Jackson Lab Mouse Genome Informatics site
d.   BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool)
e. Cochrane Library
 

e. Cochrane Library 

1) BLAST: http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi
2) JAX: http://www.informatics.jax.org/
3) PubMed:
4) OMIM: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim
5)  Cochrane Library: http://www.thecochranelibrary.com/view/0/index.html
Domain 5; Primary Species – Mouse (Mus musculus)

24

Tissue from an asymptomatic guinea pig.  Identify the tissue and etiology.  

Salivary gland

Cavid Herpesvirus or guinea pig cytomegalovirus or salivary gland virus

Infection usually subclinical.  Diagnosis is made by identification of large, eosinophilic, usually intranuclear inclusion bodies in the ductal epithelial cells of the submaxillary salivary gland.  Inclusions form at 5 days up to 3 weeks post-exposure.  May also be seen in brain, lung, kidney, spleen, pancreas, thymus, and liver.

Percy, D. and Barthold, S.  2007. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits 3rd ed.  Blackwell Publishing. Chapter 5 – Guinea Pig
2) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 6 – Biology and Diseases of Guinea Pigs, p. 221.
Domain 1; Secondary Species – Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus)

25

Which of the following types of viruses can potentially contaminate mouse gametes and embryos?

 

a. Poxvirus
b. Parvovirus
c. Herpesvirus
d. Adenovirus
e. Paramyxovirus
 

b. Parvovirus

1) Besselsen et al.  2008.  Embryo transfer rederivation of C.B-17/Icr-Prkdcscid mice experimentally infected with mouse parvovirus 1.  Comparative Medicine 58(4):353-359.
2) Veterinary Virology, 2nd edition.  Fenner, FJ; Gibbs, EPJ; Murphy, FA; Rott, R; Studdert, MJ; White, DO. p.21 Academic Press, San Diego.
Domain 1; Primary Species – Mouse (Mus musculus)

26

Which of the following animals are commonly used as models of leprosy (Hansen’s disease)?

 

a.    Cercocebus atys and Saimiri boliviensis
b.   Sanguinus fuscicollis and Cercocebus atys
c.    Pan troglodytes and Papio anubis
d.   Macaca fascicularis and Saimiri sciureus
e.    Cercocebus atys and Dasypus novemcinctus

 

e. Cercocebus atys (Sooty mangabey) and Dasypus novemcinctus (Nine-banded armadillo)


1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 16 – Nonhuman Primates, p. 741.
2) http://science.education.nih.gov/animalresearch.nsf/Story1/Armadillos+and+Their+Role+in+Treating+Leprosy
3) Bennett BT, Abee CR, Henrickson R, eds.  1998.  Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  Chapter 2 – Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, pp. 84, 88 and Chapter 9 – Integumentary System, p. 371.
Domain 3; Tertiary Species – Other Nonhuman Primates, Other Mammals

Mycobacterium laprae

 

27

What is this device?

Penicyclinder - Porcelain or stainless steel cylinders 8 mm OD x 10 mm long; used in antibiotic assays

28

Define:

a.  Chemically defined
b.  Purified
c.  Natural ingredient 

Natural ingredient:  composed of agricultural product and byproducts and are commercially available for all species.  Nutrient composition of ingredients varies from batch-to-batch.  Can be either open-formula or closed-formula.

Purified:  refined such that each ingredient contains a single nutrient or nutrient class.  These diets have less variability in concentration and potential for chemical contamination is lower.  A frequently used rat purified diet is AIN-76.

Chemically defined:  formulated with very basically defined ingredients (e.g. specific amino acids, sugars, triglycerides, essential fatty acids).  Costly and tend to lack palatability.

National Research Council.  2011.  Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 8th ed.  National Academies Press, Washington D.C.  Chapter 3 - Environment, Housing and Management, p. 65.  
2) Suckow MA, Weisbroth SH, Franklin CL, eds.  2006.  The Laboratory Rat, 2nd edition.  Elsevier Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 9 – Nutrition, pp. 269-271
Domain 4

29

According to the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations, which of the following types of facilities must be licensed as a dealer?

 

a. Facility which produces cloned animals for regulated purposes utilizing standard veterinary medical practices
b. Facility that produces novel genetically engineered animals
c. Facility that only produces antibodies/antisera on a contract basis for particular investigators but not for resale
d. Facility that produces pregnant mare urine
 

 

a. Facility which produces cloned animals for regulated purposes utilizing standard veterinary medical practices

  • A dealer's license would not be required if the research facility only produces antibodies/antisera on a contract basis for particular investigators, not for resale.  If it sells the products retail then a dealer's licence would be required.  But, would be required to be registered as a research facility.
  • Horses used for the production of PMU are not covered by the AWA.
  • A facility that produces novel genetically engineered animals is using such animals in research, and must be registered as a research facility (not  a dealer).
  • A facility which produces cloned animals for regulated purposes utilizing standard veterinary medical practices is considered to be breeding animals, and must be licensed as a dealer.


1) USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Animal Care Policy Manual.  Policy # 10:  Specific Activities Requiring A License Or Registration, March 25, 2011 (http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_welfare/downloads/policy/Policy%20Manual%2003-25-2011.pdf)
2) Animal Welfare Act, 9 CFR Part 2 – Regulations, Subpart C – Research Facilities, §2.1 (3)(i-viii)Annual requirements and application (1-1-01 Edition, p.14.).
Domain 5

 

30

30. What is the most frequent fecal bacterial isolate from subclinical and clinically affected macaques with diarrhea and how is it usually treated?

Campylobacter

Usually presents as watery diarrhea; WBC may be normal or have leukocytosis with left shift; usually severe electrolyte abnormailities:  Na<132, Cl<93, acidosis and a high anion gap

Treatment should include rehydration and replacement of electrolytes with normonatremic fluids.  May be self-limiting so antibiotic efficacy is debatable.

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 16 – Nonhuman Primates, pp. 730-733.
2) Reuter JD, Suckow MA, eds. 2006. In: Laboratory Animal Medicine and Management. International Veterinary Information Service: Ithaca, NY (http://ivis.org/advances/Reuter/toc.asp). Last updated: 25-Sep-2006.
3) Bennett BT, Abee CR, Henrickson R, eds.  1998.  Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  Chapter 2 – Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, pp. 79-81.
Domain 1; Primary Species – Macaques (Macaca spp.)