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What was the geographic and historical context for the founding of the Ottoman Empire?

It slowly conquered land and gained new territory. The empire grew over time due to military advancements, conquering new land, being religiously tolerant, and by expanding their territory.


What was the ethnic and religious composition of the Ottoman empire?

Muslims, Christians, and Jews


How did the Ottoman Empire, as led by Suleiman the Magnificent, gain, consolidate, and maintain power?

He gained power by conquering Constantinople. He consolidated power by acting against corrupt officials. He maintained power by enforcing laws and legal codes, and by building strong military fortresses.


What do primary sources reveal about how outsiders viewed the Ottomans?

-They compare the Ottomans to other civilizations
- For example, the Turkish letters shed a positive light on the Ottomans, speaking very highly of them and their morals and of how sophisticated and fair the Ottomans were.


What was the historical context for the founding of the Ming Dynasty?

-It was close to water and able to trade with nearby civilizations
-A rebel leader named Zhu Yuanzhang, led a group of bandits who captured the capital city and declared the start of the Ming Dynasty


How did the Ming Dynasty gain, consolidate, and maintain power?

-By building up the great wall, developing a strong military, and established a legal code that all citizens could understand.


What impact did Neo-confucianism have on the Ming and Qing China?

Neo-Confucianism provided social mobility through civil service exams, promoted filial piety, did not allow women an education or place in government or the workforce, and promoted the confucian goal of the importance to create harmony with society.


describe the beliefs of Neo-Confucianism including what beliefs came from Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism.

Two ideas explain the existence of life: Li and Qi.
To live a fulfilled and harmonious life, one needs to participate in their community and improve themselves through education.
Respect for elders and those with more authority according to the five relationships will lead to harmony in society.
Confucianism: five relationships, filial piety,, harmony with society
Buddhism: li, live a fulfilled life and improve yourself
Daoism: Qi- life in earth, rocks, and air (nature)


Who was Zheng He? What impact did he have on China and other regions?

He was a Chinese explorer. He established a fleet and relations with other civilizations. He spread Chinese culture and Islam.


How did the Ming dynasty interact with European traders and Christian missionaries?

-Many of the chinese converted to CHristianity through the missionaries.
-They were also interested in the European inventions presented by the traders
-Soon afterwards this stopped as emperors tried to suppress Christian activities to return to Chinese culture



an ottoman turkish term for a legally protected religious minority



a member of an elite forces of soldiers in the ottoman empire



the word for "ruler" in many Arab societies including the Ottoman empire


filial piety

respect for one's parents, elders, and ancestors


mandate of heaven

the authority to rule China, given by the gods, or heaven



sultan of the Ottoman empire (1520-1566)


Neo- Confucianism

a belief system incorporated aspects of Buddhism and Daoism into traditional Confucian beliefs


Zheng He

Chinese explorer and fleet commander. Established Chinese trade a d relations in new areas.



the imperial military secret police that served the emperors of the Ming Dynasty in China