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What has class voting been like for C1 and C2?



What name is given to the group of voters who don't vote by class?

Voters who change party loyalty each election?

Deviant voters.

Floating voters.


Which communities grew loyal to either Labour or Tory in the 60s?

What factor explains deviant support?

Tory = wealthy commuter belt around London.

Labour = poorer east of London.

Deference - those in the Lower classes 'deferring' to their superiors.


What term describes the growing tendency to not associate with class anymore?

What allowed the Lib Dems after the 80s to broaden their appeal class-wise?

Class realignment.

Took a centrist position.


In 2015, which party got more support from AB + C1 than C2 + DE?

How did many DE voters see the Brexit 2016 referendum?

Lib Dem.

An 'us against them' issue - a chance to have some influence.


What kind of campaigns did parties tend to push?

Why did so many 18-24s vote Labour in 2017?

What did Winston Churchill say about age voting?

Gender neutral - Corbyn factor (TUITION FEES).

"If you're not a liberal at twenty, you have no heart. If you're not a conservative at forty, you have no brain.".


Why do young people tend to vote Labour or Green over UKIP and Tories?

Give an example of a radical cause young people sympathised with. What's a potential caveat here?

They're more sensitive to social injustice. Arguably as you grow older, you become more desensitises to this.

Young support for Jeremy Corbyn. But, they also voted to remain...the status quo.


Who do Hindus and Sikhs tend to vote for more? What about blacks and Muslims?

H + S tend to do pretty well, and so vote Tory. Blacks and Muslims are generally more rooted in DE and C2 communities, and so vote more for Labour.


Why does the North + South prefer Labour/Tory?

Why did the % of votes for Tory + Labour increase in 2017 from 2015?

South tends to earn higher amounts of money; North is more lower class.

Could be because of Tory a Brexit policy appealing to UKIP voters + the Corbyn factor.


What reasons could be given for the decline in the nationalist vote in Scotland?

What can be said of the Lib Dems in terms of region?

Ruth Davidson (Scottish Tory leader) reinvigorating the Tory grassroots and Scottish Brexit supporters being disillusioned with the SNP's Remain stance.

They draw a thin layer of support from everywhere.


What reasons can be given for London being Labour in 2017?

Could be because of Corbyn factor / most London boroughs voted to remain, whilst Tory 2017 manifesto said no deal was better than a bad deal.


What 2 reasons can be given for the downward trend in general election turnout between 1992 and 2015 among 18-35 year olds?

Financial crisis of 2008-9 led younger generations to feel elders had not managed to manage finances properly.

2010 - Lib Dems had pledged to abolish tuition fees, but they trebled over the next 5 years instead!


What reasons can be given for a sudden rise in gen election turnout in 2017?

Corbyn's leadership of Labour popular with younger voters.

Many young people felt that they were leaving the EU without their consent - dissatisfaction galvanised younger people in 2017 to vote.

Referendums had forced young people into politics. Turnout for Scot Independence referendum among 16-17 year olds = 75%.


Why has there been a decline in 35-44 year old turnout from 2010-2017?

Liked Blair's glory days, but couldn't vote Tory - or for Miliband / Corbyn. (Fell by 8%).


Why have there been a decline in AB and DE votes since 2015?

Typical Tory voters in the AB class took victory in 2015 for granted and so didn't vote in 2017 - assumed Corbyn would lose. (Fell by 6%)

DE voters didn't vote UKIP (fell by 4%) as they had achieved their chief selling point, didn't want to vote for Labour as they're soft on immigration.


What do valence voters judge parties on? What specific area is important? Thus, why has a particular gov not been elected for a while?

Competency - economic competency. Arguably for this reason, Labour has not been elected since the 2008 global economic crisis.


Give an example of a united party being attractive to a voter considering valence.

What do issue voters weigh up to make their decision?

Corbyn's popularity went up in 2017 after his party united around him.

Issue voters weigh up manifestos.


What 4 issues do issue voters consider?

What do expressive issue voters vote for? Instrumental? (Give examples).

The economy, healthcare, immigration and education?

Expressive = what benefits society as a whole (eg Green Party for the environment).

Instrumental = what benefits the individual (eg Corbyn's pledge to ban tuition fees in 2017)


What are party leaders compared for? Despite Clegg being popular what happened?

Similarly with Farage? Miliband and Cameron?

Their trustworthiness and decisiveness. Nick Clegg, most popular leader in 2010, still lost 5 seats and vote share fell by 1% (tho caveat = got the coalition).

Farage, who had a -25 satisfaction rating in 2015, had got share go up by 9.5%.

Miliband, who had a -19 satisfaction rating, had vote share go up by 1.5% - in comparison to 0.8% for the Tories, who had a rating of -2.


When did a non-Tory last win a seat in Amersham and Chesham?

What do tactical voters consider?

Give an example of tactical voting from 2015.

The 1920.

Tactical voters consider who has a chance of winning and who is better than the alternatives.

In 2015, Labour supporters in Thanet South backed the Tory candidate to stop Farage (UKIP) from becoming MP.


How many constituencies were estimated to have been impacted by tactical voting (and who estimated this?).

Professor J Curtice estimates that 77 constituencies were impacted by this in 2015.


What is the daily circulation (and political leaning) of the Daily Mail? Mirror? Guardian?

Do all broadcasters have to stay neutral?

Who makes sure that debates are fair?

Mail = over 1.5 mil (strong conservative).

Mirror = over 700k (strong Labour).

Guardian = under 200k (moderate Labour.


The Electoral Commission.


Do parties expect TV and radio to win them elections?

Give 2 examples of debates not really impacting much.


Clegg's good performance in 2010 debates didn't result in much (tho arguably did - coalition).

May opted out of debates in 2017, and tho didn't get a majority still won the most seats (318).


Which paper claimed sole responsibility for keeping Labour out of office in 1992, and has backed every winning party since 1979?

Are newspapers highly politicised?

Do newspapers tend to lead views?

The Sun.


No - they reflect them. Rupert Murdoch, owner of the Sun and the Times, even admitted this.


How did Momentum use social networking? What about the Tories?

To enhance Corbyn's popularity among the young. Tories failed to replicate this, with their 'Strong and Stable' slogan alienating many.


What's a pro of social media? A con?

Name a polling organisation. Why (arguably) did the Tories fail to win in 2016 because of polling?

Gives parties an equal platform. But, remains a modest aspect of how people gain political knowledge.

Ipsos Mori. Arguably Tories failed to win because polls predicted them to win easily - therefore underestimated Corbyn.


What was the varying Tory lead over Labour in the polls? What actually happened?

Name two benefits to banning opinion polls. Name two negatives.

Varying lead = between 5 and 12%. But, actually came barely 2% ahead.

Positives: Politicians shouldn't be slaves to changing public opinion; they have shown themselves to be inaccurate.

Negatives: If publication was banned, the polls would become available for private organisations.

It would go against freedom of expression.


Why does region, in my opinion, most impact people to vote how they do? (2 reasons).

There are consistent trends, and seeing as regions are big, this emphasises the dramatic influence they have on voting.

In safer seats, if there's a change in opinion, a change of gov is on the way.


What could in reality explain why the Sun sides with the winning gov every time?

See below for class/region note:

They go with whichever gov is popular.

Class + region are linked - so the argument could be made that class stems from region and vice verse...so one or the other = the dominant factor.


How significant was class in influencing voting behaviour in 1997?

Highly - Blair's policies appealed more to the middle classes than Old Labour's did. Class dealignment.