Flashcards in Unit 4. Chapter 24. Lean production and quality management Deck (32)
Def. Lean production
Producing goods and services with the minimum of waste resources while maintaining high quality.
Methods to reduce waste (2)
• Simultaneous engineering
• Cell production
Def. Simultaneous engineering +benefit
Product development is organised so that different stages are done at the same time instead of in sequence.
Benefit: New products are produced much quicker to keep up with fast paced markets.
Def. Cell production
Splitting flow production into self-contained groups that are responsible for whole work units.
Benefits of cell production (4)
• Improvement in worker commitment and motivation because there is team work
• Job rotation
• Increased productivity
• TQM for each cell
What are the three main areas of flexible working? (3)
• Flexible employment contracts for non-core employees to be called on busier periods
• Flexible machinery
• Flexible and multi skilled workers
mentioned in AS chapter 22
Japanese term meaning continuous improvement. The philosophy behind this idea is that all workers have something to contribute to improving the way their business operates and the products made.
What are the conditions for Kaizen to be operated? (4)
• Management culture must be Theory Y, where employees are viewed as being able to positively contribute
• Team working - idea contribution is best done in groups
• Empowerment of employees (Herzberg)
• All staff should be involved
Limitations to kaizen (3)
• Some ideas cannot be quickly and cheaply implemented
• Management resistance to empower employees
• May require staff training
Benefits of lean production (4)
• Decrease in wasted time and resources
• Lower unit costs
• Less crowded and easily operated working area
• New products launched quicker
When would lean production not be suitable for the business? (3)
• Businesses cannot have accurate forecasting of demand therefore cannot operate with just zero stock
• Business depend on customer service as their USP. Less lean approach gives consumers more choice of finished goods and more suitable delivery times.
• The costs of new technology is too high.
Def. Quality product
A good or service that meets customers' expectations for its given price.
Def. Quality standards
The expectations of customers expressed in terms of the minimum acceptable production or service standards.
Benefits of producing quality products and services? (5)
• Consumer loyalty
• Less costs associated with consumer complaints
• Longer product life cycles
• Less advertising necessary
• Ability to charge higher prices
Def. Quality control
Based on inspection of the finished product or a sample of product as it is being provided to the consumer.
Def. Quality assurance
A system of agreeing and meeting quality standards at each stage of production to ensure consumer satisfaction.
What are the quality control techniques? (3)
• Random sampling
Limitations to quality inspection? (5)
• It is expensive, therefore sampling process would have to be used which does not ensure quality for all of the products.
• The process is looking for problems -> negative -> may cause employee resentments
• The work is tedious and repetitive -> demotivating
• Takes a lot of time to find cause of a faulty product
• Employees don't see quality as their responsibility
What are the key differences between quality assurance and quality control (4)
• Puts more emphasis on preventing faulty products
• Stresses the workers to 'get it right the first time'
• Establishes quality standards for each stage of production
• Checks raw materials once delivered
Benefits of quality assurance (4)
• Makes everyone responsible for quality -> job enrichment
• Involves all staff -> motivation
• Easier to 'trace back' where the problem with quality occurs
• Reduces need for expensive final inspection and correction
Total Quality Management: An approach to quality that aims to involve all employees in the quality improvement process.
Notes about TQM (4)
• Based on principal that everyone has responsibility to better the overall quality of the finished good
• To adopt the concept, every employee should think of another employee as their internal costumer
• Links to Herzberg's job enrichment as there's no need for quality control department and because it is everyone's job
• TQM aims to cut costs and achieve 'zero defects'
Def. Internal costumer
People within the organisation who depend upon the quality of work being done by others
Def. Zero defects
The aim of achieving perfect products every time
Potential benefits of quality systems (6)
• Consumer satisfaction and repeat custom
• Good publicity
• Encourages retails to restock
• Easier to establish new products
• Allows brand to be built around quality image
• Allows price premium if quality is the USP
Potential limitations of quality systems (7)
• Market research is expensive and time consuming
• Staff training costs to have TQM mindset
• Faulty raw materials costs
• Equipment costs
• Inspection and checking costs
• Time costs for stopping the production process to track the reason for faulty goods
• Costs for correction of a faulty good
It involves management identifying the best firms in the industry and then comparing the performance standards - including quality - of these businesses with those of their own business.
Stages of benchmarking (7)
1. Identify the aspects of business to be benchmarked
2. Measure performance in these areas
3. Identify the firms in the industry that are considered to be the best
4. Use comparative data to establish the main weakness in the business
5. Set standards for improvement
6. Change processes to achieve the standards set