Unit 3: Notes 1 Flashcards Preview

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1

name all functions of bones

1. support soft tissue
2. provides points of attachment for muscle
3. protects internal organs
4. assists in movement
5. mineral homeostasis
6. produces RBC
7. triglyceride storage

2

name types of bones

1. long bones
2. short bones
3. flat bones
4. irregular

3

what are long bones?

- greater length than width
- usually curved for strength

4

name some types of long bones

- femur
- tibia / fibula
- radius / ulna
- phalanges

5

what are short bones?

- cube shaped
- nearly equal in length and width

6

name some types of short bones

- carpals
- tarsals

7

what are flat bones ?

- thin
- afford considerable protection
- provide extensive surfaces for muscle attachment

8

name some types of flat bones

- cranial
- sternum
- scapula

9

what are irregular bones ?

complex bones

10

what are some types of irregular bones ?

- vertebrae
- facial bones

11

what are sesamoid bones?

small bones found at joints embedded

12

what are some types of sesamoid bones ?

- patella
- under big toe

13

what is the structure of a long bone ?

-diaphysis
-epiphysis
-metaphysis

14

what is the diaphysis?

shaft

15

what is the metaphysis?

mature bone between diaphysis and epiphysis

16

what does the metaphysis contain?

epiphyseal plate and epiphyseal line

17

what is the epiphyseal plate?

where hyaline cartilage found-where bone growth happens

18

what is the epiphyseal line?

appears when bone growth stops

19

what is epiphysis ?

the distal and proximal ends of bone

20

what is the structure of long bone?

-articular cartilage
- periosteum
- medullary cavity
-endosteum

21

what is articular cartilage ?

-hyaline cartilage that covers part of the epiphysis where the bone forms a joint
- reduces friction and absorbs shock

22

what is the periosteum?

-sheath of dense CT that surrounds the bone where there's no cartilage
- contains bone forming cells so bone grows in thickness
- protects bone, nourishes bone, attachment point for ligaments and tendons

23

what is the medullary cavity

-marrow cavity that contains fatty yellow bone marrow

24

what is the endosteum ?

-thin membrane lining cavity
- contains bone forming cells

25

describe the microscopic bone structure

bone has extra cellular matrix surround spread out cells

26

name all of the bone cells

-osteogenic cells
- osteoblasts
- osteocytes
- osteoclasts

27

what are osteogenic cells?

-only bone cells that undergo mitosis and divide

28

what are osteoblasts?

bone building cells

29

what are osteocytes?

mature bone cells

30

what are osteoclasts?

responsible for bone resorption (breakdown)