Unit 3- Genetics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 3- Genetics Deck (27)
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1

genotype

genetic make-up of an organism; ex. TT or Tt

2

phenotype

appearance of an organism; ex. tall plant/ green eyes

3

Punnett square

used to predict the probable offspring in a cross

4

homozygous/purebred

having the same alleles for a trait; ex. TT or tt

5

heterozygous/hybrid

having two different alleles for a trait; ex. Tt

6

pedigree

chart that shows relationships within a family; allows you to see how a trait is inherited within a family

7

Down syndrome

trisomy of chromosome number 21

8

clone

genetically identical cells

9

transgenic organism

organism that contains genes from another organism

10

polyploidy

when organisms have an extra set of chromosomes

11

sickle cell anemia

disorder that causes the red blood cells to have an abnormal hemoglobin causing an abnormal shape

12

incomplete dominance

both alleles in the heterozygote are partially expressed/blended; ex. pink flower

13

Drosophila

fruit fly; organism used for modern genetics research

14

monohybrid cross

cross involving one trait

15

dihybrid cross

cross involving two traits

16

allele

alternate form of the same trait; ex. the gene for plant height has an allele for tallness and an allele for shortness

17

codominance

both alleles in the heterozygote are fully expressed; roan cattle, erminette chickens

18

multiple alleles

a series of three or more forms of a gene

19

gene map

chart that shows the distance between genes

20

Huntingtons Disease

disorder of the central nervous system caused by a dominant gene; symptoms occur in middle age; deterioration and loss of control of voluntary movements

21

cystic fibrosis

disorder characterized by excess mucus in the lungs

22

autosome

chromosome pairs 1-22; AKA body chromosomes

23

karyotype

a photograph of metaphase chromosomes grouped in pairs

24

nondisjunction

error in meiosis in which chromosomes fail to separate

25

monosomy

type of nondisjunction in which one homologous chromosome is missing

26

trisomy

type of nondisjunction in which there is an extra chromosome in a homologous pair

27

sex chromosomes

23rd pair of chromosomes; XX or XY; determines sex of the offspring