Flashcards in Unit 3 Deck (53)
What happens when monomers join together during addition polymerisation?
Double bond breaks allowing free electrons to bond
What is a repeating unit?
Smallest part of chain that can represent the whole polymer
What are condensation polymers made from?
Monomers with two functional groups in each molecules
What is the condensation polymerisation general equation?
Idol + dicarboxylic acid -> polyester + water
When monomers join together during condensation polymerisation, what molecule is lost?
What three elements provide nutrients for plants?
Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK)
What is the haber process used for?
To make ammonia (NH3) from nitrogen and hydrogen
What is ammonia used for?
The making of fertilisers
What catalyst is used in the Haber process?
What is the Ostwald process?
When ammonia is used to make nitric acid
What are the starting materials for the Ostwald process?
Oxygen and ammonia
How does oxygen and ammonia combine to form nitrogen oxide in the Ostwald process?
In a reaction chamber where the catalyst is platinum
How can percentage mass of an element in a compound be calculated?
% mass = total mass of element/ formula mass X 100%
Describe a metal's structure
A giant lattice of positively charged metal ions in a sea of delocalised electrons
How does a metal conduct electricity?
Delocalised electrons are free to move around
Metal + water -> ?
Metal hydroxide + hydrogen
Metal + acid -> ?
Salt + hydrogen
Metal + oxygen -> ?
Which end of the reactivity series is most reactive?
What is oxidation?
The loss of electrons
What is reduction?
The gaining of electrons
Where are most metals found?
In rocks called ores
What metals can be extracted with electrolysis?
Highly reactive, e.g - magnesium, aluminium
How can metals with a medium reactivity be extracted?
Heat with carbon (eg - zinc, iron, tin ,copper)
How could silver or gold be extracted?
When are addition polymers formed?
When lots of small unsaturated molecules (monomers) join together
What is a reducing agent?
An element that causes the reduction of the metal from it's ore
What does an electrolyte do?
It allows a flow of ions and connects the circuit
Which way do the electrons flow form metal to metal?
High metal in electrochemical series gives electrons to lower metal