Flashcards in Unit 2 Practice Exam Questions Deck (45)
Small signaling molecules such as NO bind to surface receptors on target cells (T/F)
False, these small molecules interact directly with enzymes in the cytoplasm
If chorionic villus testing returns a result of 47,XY,+21, then it can be concluded that the fetus has down syndrome. TF?
False, results from CVS testing could reflect an anomoly in the placenta only (confined placental mosacism). All abnormal results from CVS must be confirmed by amniocentesis
For the enzymatic reaction shown below, the following rate constants were determined:
k1 = 10 mM-1 sec
k2 = 20sec
k3 = 40sec-1
What is the dissociation constant of the
dissociation constant = k2/k1
20/10 = 2nM
It has been shown that chromosomal breakage and rearrangement are key
Hexokinase and glucokinase are isozymes that carry out the initial step of glucose metabolism, conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate. Hexokinase has a Km for glucose of 0.1 mM and glucokinase has a Km
for glucose of 5 mM. Cytosolic glucose
(substrate) concentration is 2 mM in a fasting subject and 6 mM in a subject who has just eaten a large meal. Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from this in formation?
A. The rate of the hexokinase reaction will triple when the glucose concentration goes
from 2 mM to 6 mM.
B. The rate of the glucokinase reaction will triple when the glucose concentration goes
from 2 mM to 6 mM.
C. At 2 mM glucose, 2/7 of the active sites on glucokinase are bound to substrate.
D. All of the above are true.
E. None of the above are true
C, use equation Fe=[s]/(km+[s])
total enzyme concentration = 1nm
inhibitor = 2nm
Uninhibited enzyme = slope 4, y int of 1
+2mM inhibitor A = slope 8, y int of 1
+2mM inhibitor B = slope 8, y int of .5
what can be concluded from this data?
A.Both inhibitor A and inhibitor B are competitive inhibitors.
B. Both inhibitor A and inhibitor B have the same Ki
C.The plot for inhibitor A will have the same x intercept as the plot for the uninhibited
D.The Ki for inhibitor B will double if the total enzyme concentration is doubled
both have same Ki
both have same slope and same concentration
plug into alpha = 1+ I/Ki
Activated T cells express _______________, which binds to B7 with 20 times higher affinity than CD28 and results
in _____________ of T cell activity and proliferation.
bacterial toxins that activate T-cells at a 100x greater rate than other antigens
Describe the drug used for immune rejection
CTLA fused to Fc region of an Ig molecule
Patient had a helminth infection resulting in high levels of IFN gamma and activated macrophages. Patients serum had high levels of IgG. Pronogis?
Poor, due to prescence of a TH1 response.
Need TH2 for helminths (IgE)
A cyclin molecule can best be described as...
the regulatory subunit of a protein kinease
After prolonged exposure to a high concentration of a hormone, you find that a specific tissue shows a greatly
decreased response to the hormone (adaptation). What is most likely to be responsible?
a change in the number of receptors on each cell
patient presents with tumor, DNA reveals novel mutations in kknown/suspected receptors associated with tumor tissue. Which type of receptor is frequently the target of oncogenic mutations and therefor most likely to be linked to the tumor growth in this patient?
Receptor Tyrosine Kineases
EBV vs CMV?
EBV causes severe sore throat more often
Which of the following statements about herpesvirus latency is CORRECT?
A: Latency is a hindrance to vaccine development because the virus genome is maintained in the cell for the life of the infected
B: Latency is established before symptoms of the primary infection are apparent.
C: Reactivation from latency may not be apparent to the infected person.
D: The genome is present in a cell but infectious virions are absent.
E: All of the above
F: None of the above
all of the above
After polio binds GI receptors. When does infection begin and what happens next?
infection begins when genome enters cytoplasm
Polio's genome is +ssRNA which is recognized by ribosomes, so the next step involves translation of genomic mRNA into viral polyprotein by host ribosomes
child has recurrent infections with labs showing absence of large granular lymphocytes. Flow cytometry shoes normal numbers of CD3+, CD19+, and lack of CD56+ cells. What ist he probable mechanism?
mutation of an essential transcription factor
NK cells are "large granular lymphocytes" with a cd56+ receptor
Which statement about rotovirus is correct?
1. incidence peaks during summer
2. Gastroenteritis is most common in infants and toddlers
3. icosahedral, enveloped, -ssRNA virus
4. heat killed injectable rotovirus vaccine is used in the US; the live, attenuated, rotavirus vaccine is used in other countries
b - Gastroenteritis caused by the virus is most common in infants/toddlers
icosahedral capsid with spikes at verticies with no envelope, double stranded DNA
most likely is?
the bronchus of a dead smoker has respiratory epithelium likely replaced with?
stratified squamous epithelium (like skin)
protection from tumor cells of the cervix has been demonstrated in women who have
received the Gardasil. The major components of the vaccine are capsid proteins from a DNA virus. The
pre-neoplastic lesions do not express capsid proteins, but instead express viral oncoproteins
analogous to the
t antigen of merkel cell polyomavirus
Both chromosome breakage syndromes and HNPCC (hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer) are associated with
mutations in dna repair genes
To kill bacteria that are adapted to survive inside of phagocytes, the most important immune response
TH1 response and activation of macrophages
Which of the following junction types is MOST IMPORTANT for determining epithelial tissue permeability
Expression of the ribozyme called telomerase in cancer cells may prevent cellular senescence by
stimulating RNA templated extension of the parental DNA strand
which is not a component of the BCR? cd2, cd19, cd21, cd81
cd2 - this is an adhesion molecule found on T cells and NK cells
14 year old gets a thymectomy, likely outcome?
will likely survive with functional immune system
A newborn in the neonatal intensive care unit has features consistent with Patau syndrome. The perinatologist requests that the
diagnosis be confirmed by karyotype analysis. It is important to determine the karyotype of the baby because .
A: it will reveal which parent is the source of the abnormality, which is important for future family planning
B: it is possible that this child has a normal chromosome constitution and is actually affected by an autosomal recessive phenocopy. In addition, if the child has a chromosome rearrangement involving chromosome 13, the chromosome imbalance could place future pregnancies at risk
C: if the child is a mosaic, the mutation cannot be due to an error in meiosis, and therefore the recurrence risk in future pregnancies will be negligible
D: if the disease causing duplication can be identified, it will reveal which of the parents is a carrier of that mutation which is important for future
E: it will aid in his/her care
it is possible that this child has a normal chromosome constitution and is actually affected by an autosomal recessive phenocopy. In addition, if the child has a chromosome rearrangement involving chromosome 13, the chromosome imbalance could place future pregnancies at risk
Answer B: The diagnosis of Patau syndrome at birth would be done by clinical assessment. It is always a good idea to have the
chromosome complement confirmed by karyotype analysis, but, more important, is the confirmation that the trisomy is the result of a meiotic
nondisjunction event giving rise to 3 individual copies of chromosome 13. The recurrence risk for this is quite low. However, the trisomy could also be
the result of a nondisjunction error if one of the parents is a carrier of a Robertsonian translocation involving chromosome 13. Clinically there is no way
to tell the difference between a translocation trisomy and a three chromosome trisomy, but if a parent is a carrier of a rearrangement, then he/she is at
risk of having another child with a trisomy. Knowing that there is a recurrence risk is an important piece of information for future family planning.
Learning Outcomes: Genetics
A 24-year-old woman who is 18 weeks pregnant is meeting with her obstetrician to discuss prenatal screening for chromosomal
abnormalities. This is her first pregnancy and she has no family history of chromosomal disorders. Which of the following should
be offered and discussed with the patient?
This patient is in her 2nd trimester and amniocentesis is the only listed procedure that is carried out in the 2nd trimester. All others are 1st
Learning Outcomes: Genetics