Flashcards in Unit 2-Nature's Chemistry Deck (22)
What are alkanes?
A homologous series of hydrocarbons where all the carbon-to-carbon bonds are single covalent bonds
What are the prefixes for the hydrocarbons from one carbon atom to eight carbons?
What is the general formula for alkanes?
The shorter the carbon chain, the lower the......
What are the two products when hydrocarbons combust?
Carbon dioxide and water
What is the definition of a homologous series?
A group of compounds that have the same general formula and similar chemical properties
What is the definition of an isomer?
Compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structural formula
What are the steps in naming hydrocarbons?
1- Identify the longest chain of carbon atoms and name the alkane with this number of carbon atoms
2-Identify the branch and name it according to the number of carbon atoms in the branch
3-Number the branch so that it has the lower of two possible numbers
What are cycloalkanes?
A homologous series of hydrocarbons where the carbon atoms join together to form a closed ring
What is the general formula for cycloalkanes?
What are the alkenes?
The alkenes are a homologous series of hydrocarbons that contain at least one carbon-to-carbon double bond
What is the general formula for alkenes?
Are alkenes saturated or unsaturated and explain your answer?
They are said to be unsaturated because the double bond can break down and allow another atom to join on.
What is the test for saturation and the expected result?
Adding bromine water and if the liquid decolourises it is unsaturated.
What is the functional group of alcohols?
The hydroxyl group -OH
What is the general formula for alcohols?
What is produced in the combustion of alcohols?
Carbon dioxide and Oxygen
What is the functional group of carboxylic acids?
// Carboxyl group
What are some uses of carboxylic acids?
Cleaning, food additives, making esters
When is an ester formed?
When an alcohol reacts with carboxylic acid
What are the two types of reactions?
Exothermic and endothermic reactions