Unit 2-Cell Cycle, Protein Synthesis, DNA Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2-Cell Cycle, Protein Synthesis, DNA Deck (42)
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1

codon

series of 3 bases in a strand of DNA or mRNA; codes for an amino acid

2

anticodon

series of 3 bases in a strand of tRNA

3

mitosis

process by which the nucleus of a cell is divided into two nuclei, each with the same number of chromosomes

4

cytokinesis

process where a cells cytoplasm is divided; happens at the end of telophase

5

spindle fiber

football shaped structure that aides in the movement of chromosomes

6

cell division

process that makes two distinct identical cells

7

sister chromatids

one of two distinct strands that make up a chromosome

8

centromere

structure that holds together pairs of chromatids

9

replication

DNA makes a copy of itself; happens in the S-phase of interphase

10

interphase

The time between cell divisions; not part of mitosis but is part of the cell cycle; divided into 3 parts- G1, S, and G2

11

prophase

first phase of mitosis; chromosomes become visible, nuclear membrane disappears, spindle fibers form

12

metaphase

2nd phase of mitosis; chromosomes line up across the equator (middle) of the cell

13

anaphase

3rd phase of mitosis; centromeres split and separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell

14

telophase

last phase of mitosis; nuclear membrane reforms, chromosomes unwind, spindle fibers dissappear

15

cytosine

pairs with guanine; a nitrogenous base in DNA or RNA

16

guanine

pairs with cytosine; a nitrogenous base in DNA or RNA

17

adenine

pairs with thymine in DNA and uracil in RNA

18

thymine

pairs with adenine in DNA (no T in RNA)

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uracil

pairs with adenine in RNA (no U in RNA)

20

centriole

in animal cells only; aids in mitosis- organelle that produces the spindle fibers

21

double helix

twisted ladder shape of DNA formed by 2 separate nucleotides

22

nucleotide

monomer of a nucleic acid; made up of a sugar, a phosphate group and a base

23

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

24

mRNA

messenger RNA; copies info on a strand of DNA in the nucleus of a cell and takes it to the ribosome

25

tRNA

transfer RNA; copies info from mRNA in the cytoplasm near the ribosome

26

cell cycle

period of the beginning of one mitosis to the beginning of the next; includes interphase (G1,S,G2) and mitosis (IPMAT)

27

cancer

a cell that isn't subject to normal cell cycle control mechanisms and will divide continuously

28

chromatin

material in chromosomes that is composed of DNA and protein (called histone); long stringy strands of DNA

29

base pairing

attraction between complementary nitrogenous bases

30

G1 (growth phase 1 of interphase)

cell grows in size and carries on day to day life sustaining activities