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Flashcards in Unit 2 Deck (29)
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1

What is S.A.R.A.?

S.A.R.A. Is the generic problem orientated model

S- scanning
A- analysis
R- response
A- assessment

2

What is C.A.P.R.A.?

C.A.P.R.A Model is used by the RCMP and helps define the competencies necessary for effective community policing.

C- clients
A- acquiring and analyzing information
P- partnership
R- response
A- assessment for continuous improvement

3

What is the broken window theory?

The broken window theory was developed in 1982 that contains 4 different points.

-neighbourhood disorder creates fear
-neighbourhoods give our crime promoting signals
-serious criminals move in
-police needs citizens cooperation

4

What is reactive policing?

-reactive policing is based on the belief that the speed of police response to crime incidents is the superior way to apprehend suspects.
-the standard model of policing with a one size fits all approach. Police respond to citizens calls for help.

5

What are the criticisms of reactive policing?

-creates lack of knowledge about local community
-fear of crime: patrolling officers did not give residents a feeling of security
-the efficiency: do faster reaction times actually increase chances of apprehension?
-community stereotyping: led to distrust between community and police

6

What are the 6 basic values of police subculture?

1. Police are the only real crime fighters
2. No one else understands police work
3. Loyalty to colleagues above everyone else
4. Bending the rules to win the war against crime
5. Public is unsupportive and demanding
6. Patrol work is the “pits”

7

What are some of the negative effects of the six values of police subculture?

-resist new or innovative ideas like community policing
-the subculture can support the violation of legal rights of citizens as well as the misuse of police authority
-resist police accountability
-can create a “blue curtain” or “blue wall of silence” secret and general mistrust of the outside world.

8

What is Police Legitimacy vs Policing by Consent?

Police legitimacy: judgements that ordinary citizens make about the rightness of police conduct and the organizations that employ and supervise them
Policing by Consent: police want the cooperation and support of the public when they are conducting their legal duties

*police legitimacy is supported by the principle of policing by consent*

9

Who is Robert Peel and what significance does he have? What are the four philosophies?

-in 1829 Robert Peel “invented” modern day police in London
“The London Metropolitan Police”

10

What is Police Legitimacy vs Policing by Consent?

Police legitimacy: judgements that ordinary citizens make about the rightness of police conduct and the organizations that employ and supervise them
Policing by Consent: police want the cooperation and support of the public when they are conducting their legal duties

*police legitimacy is supported by the principle of policing by consent*

11

Who is Robert Peel and what significance does he have? What are the four philosophies?

-in 1829 Robert Peel “invented” modern-day police in London
“The London Metropolitan Police”
-to reduce tension and conflict between police and the public
-to use non-violent means to keep the peace
-to relieve the military from certain duties
-to be judged on the absence of crime rather than by the high visible police actions
*The main goal was to prevent crime through the use of preventative patrols.*

12

When was the North West Mounted Police established and why?

The former NWMP now known as RCMP, was formed in 1873 to police Western Canada

13

What is the professional model of policing?

-a top-down approach
-leads to more efficient and more effective operations
-important to the professional model are specialist roles such as, field operations, administration, crime/support services

14

What is plural policing? What are the 5 types of plural policing?

Plural policing is are different styles of services provided by different agencies.
-policing by government
-policing through government
-policing about government
-policing beyond government
-policing below government

15

What are the three levels of distribution of police in Canada?

3 Levels
-Municipal
-Provincial
-Federal

16

What is the police personality?

-a unique set of personality traits to help police officers help them in their work.
-Police can be criticized for traits such at cynicism, hostility, dogmatism, and conservatism.

17

What is cynicism (two types) and how long does it take for police to become cynical?

The two types of cynicism are
-General cynicism (against people in general)
-Specific cynicism (directed towards the police organization itself)
Cynicism is rejecting the ideals of truth and justice. It usually takes 7-10 years for cynicism to develop.

18

What are the 4 styles of policing?

-Social agent
-Watchman
-Law enforcer
-Crime fighter

19

What are the purposes of patrol?

Deterrence of crime - being visible
Maintenance of public order
Provisions of 24hr services not crime related

20

What are the methods of patrol?

-Foot patrol
-Directed patrol
-M/V patrol

21

What was the Kansas City Experiment?

The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment was conducted in the early 70's and it conducted experiments on how different types of patrols would affect crime rates. (it did not have an affect)

The three types of patrols conducted were:
-Reactive
-Proactive
-Control group

22

What is problem orientated policing (POP)?

POP is similar to community policing. Instead of putting all energy and resources into responding, put energy and resources into the causes of the problems.

23

What are the five principles to POP?

-Problem to the community, not just the police
-Group or pattern of incidents that requires a different set of responses
-You must consider completing interests at stake
-Requires long-term solution rather than a quick fix
-Requires a heightened level of creativity and initiative

24

What is community policing? What are the three basic aims?

Community policing is a philosophy that promotes a partnership between the community and police. If the police and community work together as equal problems it will improve quality of life in the area.
The three basic aims are:
- Forming community partnerships
-Organizational change
-Problem solving

25

Characteristics of Community Policing

-the mission of police officers as police officers
-proactive approach to policing
-problem-oriented strategy
-crime prevention activities
-inter-agency cooperation
-reduction of the fear of victimization
-development of police officers as generalists

26

Other types of policing?

-Intelligence led policing
-encourages inter-agency cooperation
-Zero tolerance: Aggressive Policing
-eliminates disorder by targeting individuals or certain areas responsible for disorder (confrontational)
-Predictive Policing
-technology has helped police assemble and analyze crime and disorder data
-helps predict locations where crime may occur

27

What is police discretion?

When police use their judgement to decide when to intervene in a situation or when to ignore it.
Discretion- "is the choice or decision on the part of the police to arrest, charge, or not to charge an individual.

28

5 uses of force?

-Physical (force-wrist locks, choke holds)
-Chemical (pepper sprayed)
-Electronic (taser)
-Impact (batons, flashlights)
Firearm force (pointing or firing)

29

What are the types of coercion?

-Verbal
-Physical
-Non-lethal
-Lethal