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Flashcards in Understanding Patient Behaviour Deck (17)
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According to the Leventhal Et Al (1985) act, what are the factors that are believed to predict health behaviours?

1. Social factors- learning, reinforcement, modelling, social norms

2. Genetics- genetic basis for alcohol use

3. Emotional factors- stress, anxiety, tension and fear

4. Perceived symptoms like pain, breathlessness and fatigue

5. Beliefs of patients and healthcare professionals


What are the general risk factors for coronary heart disease?

1. Smoking and tobacco use

2. Poor diet

3. High blood cholesterol

4. High blood pressure

5. Insufficient physical activity

6. Overweight and obesity

7. Diabetes

8. Psychosocial stress

9. Excess alcohol consumption

10. Maternal nutrition and air pollution


What are the treatment goals for coronary heart disease?

1. Resuming appropriate levels of exercise

2. Smoking cessation

3. Weight management (BMI less than 30kg/m2)

4. Addressing alcohol use

5. Stress management


Describe the lay referral system?

1. If suffering from symptoms- decision is made to seek medical advice isn't often because of just themselves

2. They seek to discuss decision with:
Family, friends and colleagues


Why do patients regularly consult a pharmacist?

1. Minor aliments

2. Conformation of health status

3. Pharmacists' accessibility

4. Source of information, supplier of convention and unorthodox treatment

5. Have medicine dispensed

6. Receive health care promotion advice and/or diagnostic testing


What are the factors that influence an individuals response to an illness?

1. Symptom visibility and perceived importance

2. Assessment of symptom's significance (risk assessment)

3. Potential for individual's symptom to disrupt community

4. Symptom for denial for fear of conformation of serious disease

5. Deferring response to symptoms for competing demands like work, family commitments

6. Assessment of social and economically costs of RTS against potential health related benefits

7. Available information, knowledge and cultural assumptions

8. Frequency and persistence of symptoms

9. Competing interpretations of symptoms


What are the psychological needs to cardiac patients?

1. Concerns about the impact of symptoms and significance

2. Adherence to or side effects from treatment

3. Shock, disbelief and denial about having cardiac problem

4. Coping and engaging in everyday activities

5. Modifying behavioural risk factors for coronary heart disease

6. Changes in relationships and interactions with other people

7. Catastrophic interpretations about impact of cardiac disease on their lives and prospects in future

8. Re-emergence or worsening of pre-morbind psychological difficulties (past depression)


Describe what communication barriers can cause non adherence of medication and what it's caused by?

1. Non english as primary language

2. Low function literacy

3. Substance abuse

4. Mental illness

Caused by:
- Limited time with patient
- Complex medication regimens
- High level instructions


Describe what motivation factors can cause non adherence of medication and what it's caused by?

1. Poor understanding of disease state/illness

2. Lack of perceived need or benefit from medication

3. Fear of toxicity or side effects

Caused by:
-Limited time with patient
-Complex medication regimens
-Preventative therapy
-Polypharmacy (4 or more medicine used by patient)


Describe what socioeconomic factors can cause non adherence of medication and what it's caused by?

1. Inadequete healthcare coverage

2. Unemployed and poverty

3. Concerns about costs

Economic recession


What can patients suffer from thats not cardiac related when they have a existing cardiovascular disease?

1. Anxiety and depression

2. Reluctant to accept diagnosis or anxiety or depression


What are the lifestyle changes after an MI?

1. Changing diet

2. Alcohol consumption

3. Regular physical activity

4. Smoking cessation

5. Weight management


How does a patient adjust to a long term condition, what are the long term characteristics and illness trajectory?

1. Body systems impacted

2. Symptom burden

Illness trajectory :
1. Diagnosis

2. Complicated onset

3. Change in treatment

4. Relapse or flareup


What is the lazarus and folkman stress and coping model? (LONG ANSWER)

1. Stimulus- what is at stake?

2. Primary appraisal
- threat relevant? (harm & loss, threat, challenge)
- No threat = no worry

3. Secondary Appraisal - What can i do?
- What resources do i have?
- Will it be effective (expectations)

4. Coping behaviours
- Problem focused: managing the cause of distress
- Emotion focused: regulation of distress

5. Re-appraisal back to beginning of stimulus


What is the Leventhal ET AL common sense model? (LONG ANSWER)

Look in folder of PM2D


What influences behaviour changes?

1. Persuasive communication and interaction

2. Appropriate follow up

3. CPD to ensure best practice

4. Adherence tob best practice guidelines

5. Interventions which work:
- Targeting eating, physical activity, sexual behaviour, addictive behaviours, stress management, screening for women, use of health services

- Shorter interventions are more effective

- Targeting women and older people (more effective)


What is the COM-B model for?

Understanding behaviour