Understanding Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT) / Test 3/3 Flashcards Preview

CVPR 330 Blood > Understanding Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT) / Test 3/3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Understanding Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT) / Test 3/3 Deck (82)
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1

Heparin was discovered by

1916 Dr. Maclean

2

Heparin is a member of heterogeneous family of

glycosaminoglycans

3

Molecular weight of Heparin ?

3,000 - 30,000 daltons

4

Heparin is negatively charged, binds to a variety of ?

Plasma Proteins

5

Synthesized endogeneously and stored in basophilic granules of __________ cells. (High concentrations in lung & intestines)

Mast

6

Product Sources:
Porcine ?
Bovine ?

Porcine = Intestines
Bovine = Lungs

7

Does renal nor hepatic dysfunction have any significant effect on heparin elimination?

No

8

Heparins primary action is to bind reversibly to natural circulating ?

ATIII
1,000-4,000 fold acceleration

9

What happens Following the blockade and inactivation of thrombin ?

heparin is released

10

Heparins Limited anticoagulant action is that it is unable to dissolve an ?

Existing thrombus directly

11

Heparins Effectiveness occurs immediately, how long after the heparin bolus do we test ?

3 min

12

Heparin is associated with what ?

Deranged platelet function

13

HIT is a result of what ?

Immune and non-Immune responses.

14

In regards to heparin and inflammation, heparin can bind to what ?

chemokines,
cytotoxic peptides, &
tissue destructive enzymes

15

In regards to heparin and malignancy ?

Heparin contains Anti metastatic action

16

Inhibition of adrenal aldosterone which is generated by heparin may produce what?

hyperkalemia

17

In regards to heparin and metabolism, Heparin activates what ?

lipoprotein lipase

18

Abnormal thyroid function tests may occur with

heparin admistration

19

Long-term heparin therapy can cause the development of what?

osteoporosis

20

Studies find that this heparin preparation is more likely to yield immune HIT.

Bovine Lung

21

Many cases of HIT could be avoided simply by using what?

porcine GUT UFH

22

Prophylactic dose
Therapeutic dose
Flushes
Heparin-coated devices

Fall under what type of heparin ?

Associated Incidence of HIT?

Unfractionated Heparin

Highest

23

Prophylactic dose
Therapeutic dose

Fall under what type of heparin ?

Associated Incidence of HIT?

Low Molecular Weight Heparin

Medium

24

Pentosan polysulfate
Hypersulfated chondroitin sulfate
PI-88 (anti-angiogenic drug)

Fall under what type of heparin ?

Associated Incidence of HIT?

Highly sulfated polysaccharides

Low

25

Clinical events associated with HIT include:

-Venous thromboembolism
-Arterial thromboembolism
-Skin lesions
-Disseminated Coagulation
(DIC)

26

DVT and pulmonary embolism are strongly associated with ?

HIT (1,2,)

27

Arterial thromboembolic events include ?

peripheral arterial occlusion, acute myocardial infarction, and stroke.

28

The ratio of venous to arterial thrombotic events in a large retrospective study of serologically confirmed HIT was approximately

4:1

29

Pulmonary embolism occurred in about ___ of all patients diagnosed with HIT, which was more frequent than all arterial thrombotic events combined

25%

30

Skin lesions associated with HIT include?

Skin necrosis and/or erythematous plaques