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Flashcards in Unconventional fossil fuels Deck (20)
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1

Name four unconventional fossil fuels

- Tar sands
- Oil shale
- Shale gas
- Deep water oil

2

What are the ingredients and extraction process of tar sands?

Clay, sand, bitumen and water
Mining and processing

3

What are the ingredients and extraction process of oil shale?

Bituminous material, silt and organic matter
Mining and high temperatures

4

What are the extraction process of shale gas?

Hydraulic fracking

5

What are the extraction process of deep water oil?

Underwater drilling and extraction

6

What are the socio-economic issues of tar sands?

2015 depression of oil prices as bitumen is expensive to extract

7

What are the socio-economic issues of shale gas?

- Industrial explosions
- Workers at high risk of disease
- Carcinogenic

8

What are the socio-economic issues of deep water oil?

- Storage and off-loading ships cost $2bn each
- Hard to access and so helicopters required

9

What are the environmental issues of tar sands?

- Alberta; 220sqkm of unlined toxic waste pools
- Greenhouse gas emissions

10

What are the environmental issues of oil shale?

- Over 1 tonne of waste rock per barrel
- Two barrels of water needed per barrel of oil

11

What are the environmental issues of shale gas?

Contamination of ground water by chemicals in pumping fluids as well as greenhouse gas emissions

12

What are the environmental issues of deep water oil?

Leakages and spills

13

What are the significant locations of tar sands?

Canada and Venezuela

14

What are the significant locations of oil shale?

Colorado, Utah and Wyoming

15

What are the significant locations of shale gas?

New York, Texas and West Virginia

16

What are the significant locations of deep water oil?

Brazil and Mexico

17

Tar sands:
- Produce (1)% of Canada's oil output
- More than (2) barrels of oil in the form of tar sands
- Requires (3) barrels of water per barrel of oil

1 - 40
2 - 2 trillion
3 - 7

18

How does Royal Dutch Shell try to prevent the leak of kerogen in oil shale productions?

Heats the shale underground in a freeze wall

19

Shale gas produced (1)% of the USA's gas in 2015

Nearly 25

20

Deep water oil:
- Brazil's operations invested in by (1)
- Plants are (2)km offshore
- Drill a depth of (3)

1 - China
2 - 200-300
3 - 2km