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Flashcards in UK POLITICS 1 Deck (22)
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Features of Representative democracy ?(7)

1) elections (every 5 years) to elect representatives
2) civil liberties protected
3) elections contested by numerous parties
4) constitutional checks exist
5) an assembly exists reflecting the make up of society (MP's)
6) pressure groups have freedom
7)independent judiciary


advantages? (4) representative

1) professionals make complex decisions
2) minority views considered and upheld
3) politicians help to account
4) most practical form


disadvantages? (4) representative

1) citizens disengaged
2) tight controls on parties politicians lack independence
3) skilled and swerve accountability
4) politicians open to corruption and self-interest


advantages of direct? (4)

1) everyone in society participates
2)people directly make decisions in their interest
3) all citizens votes are equal
4) purest form of democracy


disadvantages of direct ?(4)

2) citizens become apathetic when asked to participate to much
3)people will vote in own interest not societies
4)no minority voices heard(tyranny of majority)


what are the 6 features of healthy democracy ?

citizens rights
pressure groups
limited government
independent judiciary


what are 3 features to consider when talking about a participation crisis?

falling participation and evidence
positive participation and increasing levels


what are 3 reform to improve UK democracy?

what are 3 other possible reforms ?

1) compulsory voting
2) lower the voting age
3) more e-democracy

1) greater use of referenda
2) change electoral system
3) constitutional reform


what are interest groups?

cause groups?

section of society e.g. teachers

open membership, benefit wider society e.g. green peace


what would corporations want to achieve?

think tanks?

to legislate or not by lobbying gov on issues that concern them e.g. Uber

research into changing political policies e.g. centre for social justice


what is civil disobedience ?
seen with what type of pressure group typically?

refusal to obey certain laws
outsider (direct action)


strengths of pressure groups?(6)

-participate in political processes
- pluralist democracy
-balance tyranny of majority
-expert knowledge
-limit gov power
- educate and inform electorate


weaknesses to pressure groups?(5)

-can be divisive and selfish can dominate issues
-can stop things which others feel are needed (HS2)
- not accountable to public
-reduce power of gov
-difficult to mange and govern 'hyper-pluralism'


how did the Human Rights Act give us positive rights?

because before 1998 the UK only had negative rights i.e. murder illegal meaning we had a right to life.


Freedom of information Act (2000)?

The Equality Act (2010)?

gives citizens the 'right to know' BUT has major exceptions for national security

combined into legislation making it illegal to discriminate in 9 areas.


How are rights protected in the UK?(3)

1) judicial review (review of ministers to make sure their decisions are lawful)
2) common law (rules established through customs)
3) Statue law (takes precedence over common law)


What are individual rights? (4)

right to privacy
freedom of expression
right to protest
freedom of assembly


what are collective rights?(4)

freedom of press
upholding religious tolerance
right to peaceful process
security of the nation


what are civil liberties ? why are these less protected in the UK?

what significance does the Human Rights Act of 1998 being incorporated into ECHR into UK law?

rights that citizens have in democracy

because they are not enshrined in the Bill of Rights but ours a part of law can be changed by gov

because it means citizens can challenge laws in UK laws 'declaration of incompatibility'


Rights are protected in the UK ?(4)

-HRA means rights clear and detailed
-rights-based culture
-judiciary active in defending rights
-pressure groups stop gov undermining rights


Rights not protected in the UK?(4)

-gov restrict to protect from terrorism
-right to protest near parliament restricted
-gov has 'control orders' restrict movement
-media undermines portraying HRA to restrict


what are 5 possible threats to civil liberties in the UK?

stop and search
freedom of expression
political demonstrations