Flashcards in UK POLITICS 1 Deck (22)
Features of Representative democracy ?(7)
1) elections (every 5 years) to elect representatives
2) civil liberties protected
3) elections contested by numerous parties
4) constitutional checks exist
5) an assembly exists reflecting the make up of society (MP's)
6) pressure groups have freedom
advantages? (4) representative
1) professionals make complex decisions
2) minority views considered and upheld
3) politicians help to account
4) most practical form
disadvantages? (4) representative
1) citizens disengaged
2) tight controls on parties politicians lack independence
3) skilled and swerve accountability
4) politicians open to corruption and self-interest
advantages of direct? (4)
1) everyone in society participates
2)people directly make decisions in their interest
3) all citizens votes are equal
4) purest form of democracy
disadvantages of direct ?(4)
2) citizens become apathetic when asked to participate to much
3)people will vote in own interest not societies
4)no minority voices heard(tyranny of majority)
what are the 6 features of healthy democracy ?
what are 3 features to consider when talking about a participation crisis?
falling participation and evidence
positive participation and increasing levels
what are 3 reform to improve UK democracy?
what are 3 other possible reforms ?
1) compulsory voting
2) lower the voting age
3) more e-democracy
1) greater use of referenda
2) change electoral system
3) constitutional reform
what are interest groups?
section of society e.g. teachers
open membership, benefit wider society e.g. green peace
what would corporations want to achieve?
to legislate or not by lobbying gov on issues that concern them e.g. Uber
research into changing political policies e.g. centre for social justice
what is civil disobedience ?
seen with what type of pressure group typically?
refusal to obey certain laws
outsider (direct action)
strengths of pressure groups?(6)
-participate in political processes
- pluralist democracy
-balance tyranny of majority
-limit gov power
- educate and inform electorate
weaknesses to pressure groups?(5)
-can be divisive and selfish can dominate issues
-can stop things which others feel are needed (HS2)
- not accountable to public
-reduce power of gov
-difficult to mange and govern 'hyper-pluralism'
how did the Human Rights Act give us positive rights?
because before 1998 the UK only had negative rights i.e. murder illegal meaning we had a right to life.
Freedom of information Act (2000)?
The Equality Act (2010)?
gives citizens the 'right to know' BUT has major exceptions for national security
combined into legislation making it illegal to discriminate in 9 areas.
How are rights protected in the UK?(3)
1) judicial review (review of ministers to make sure their decisions are lawful)
2) common law (rules established through customs)
3) Statue law (takes precedence over common law)
What are individual rights? (4)
right to privacy
freedom of expression
right to protest
freedom of assembly
what are collective rights?(4)
freedom of press
upholding religious tolerance
right to peaceful process
security of the nation
what are civil liberties ? why are these less protected in the UK?
what significance does the Human Rights Act of 1998 being incorporated into ECHR into UK law?
rights that citizens have in democracy
because they are not enshrined in the Bill of Rights but ours a part of law can be changed by gov
because it means citizens can challenge laws in UK laws 'declaration of incompatibility'
Rights are protected in the UK ?(4)
-HRA means rights clear and detailed
-judiciary active in defending rights
-pressure groups stop gov undermining rights
Rights not protected in the UK?(4)
-gov restrict to protect from terrorism
-right to protest near parliament restricted
-gov has 'control orders' restrict movement
-media undermines portraying HRA to restrict