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1

The means through which power is acquired and exercised by some people and groups is a. government.

b. the economy.

c. politics.

d. the military.

e. family.

Through Political Power.
Groups and individuals seek political power in order to control access to scarce resources.

2

What is a manifest function

Recognized and intended cinsequences that people observe or expect in a social pattern/ social institution.

3

Structional Funcitonalism

Society is a complex system whose parts promote solidarity and stablity

4

"Proper" attitudes toward education, socially approved dress and manners, knowledge about books, art, music, and other forms of high and popular culture are all examples of
a. cultural mystique.

b. the proper social grace.

c. accumulated social wisdom.

d. cultural capital.

e. cultural materialism.

Cultural Capital

5

Assignment of students to specific courses and educational programs based on their test scores, previous grades, or both is
a. age grading.

b. intelligence grouping.

c. tracking.

d. ability integration.

e. nepotism.

Tracking

6

The type of social arrangement in which people are able to gain higher positions based on their intellectual and educational credentials rather than through the influence of personal contacts is
a tracking orientation.

b. a credentialist orientation.

c. a meritocracy.

d. an educational bureaucracy.

e. a spoils system.

a meritocracy.

7

The study of the causes and distribution of health, disease, and impairment throughout a population is
a. social epidemiology.

b. social welfare.

c. social engineering.

d. social biology.

e. health demography.

social epidemiology.

8

Who are the working poor?
a. People who live from just above to just below the poverty line

b. Seldom employed individuals who are caught in long-term deprivation because of low education, low employability, low income, and low self-esteem

c. Skilled and semi-skilled machine operators who work in factories and elsewhere

d. Those who live on the margins of society, are frequently homeless, and have little hope for the future

e. People who make $50,000 a year or less

People who live from just above to just below the poverty line

9

Which of the following BEST expresses the functionalist explanation of social inequality?

a. Powerful people are able to shape and distribute the rewards, resources, privileges, and opportunities in society.

b. Positions that are most important for the survival of society must be filled by the most qualified people who are highly rewarded.

c. The presence of inequality in a society does not serve as a motivating force for people.

d. The core values of society support social inequality.

e. Most inequality is the result of patriarchy.

Positions that are most important for the survival of society must be filled by the most qualified people who are highly rewarded.

10

For the upper class, wealth most often is the result of

a. job training.

b. hard work.

c. inheritance.

d. education.

e. salaries and benefits.

inheritance

11

Karl Marx's term for government, schools, churches, and all other social institutions that produce and disseminate ideas that perpetuate the existing system of exploitation is society's
a. substructure.

b. superstructure.

c. ecostructure.

d. basic structure.

e. class structure.

superstructure

12

The respect or regard with which a person is regarded by others is
a. wealth.

b. power.

c. status.

d. authority.

e. prestige.

prestige

13

All of the following are shared by members of the same ethnic groups, EXCEPT
a. unique cultural traits.

b. a feeling of ethnocentrism.

c. a common educational level.

d. territoriality.

e. a common language.

common education levels

14

What do sociologists term a group that is advantaged and has superior resources and rights within a society?

a. Majority

b. Minority

c. Superior

d. Powerful

e. Social class

Majority

15

A negative attitude based on faulty generalizations about members of selected racial, ethnic, or other groups is referred to as

prejudice.

16

At birth, male and female infants are distinguished by the genitalia used in the reproductive process, which are referred to as
a. gonads and fallopian tubes.

b. primary sex characteristics.

c. secondary sex characteristics.

d. biological tendencies.

e. tertiary sex characteristics.

b. primary sex characteristics.

17

The culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males found in the meanings, beliefs, and practices associated with "femininity" and "masculinity" are known as
a. gender.

b. sex.

c. primary sexual identifiers.

d. secondary sexual identifiers.

e. behaviorism.

a. gender.

18

In the United States, males traditionally are expected to demonstrate aggressiveness, whereas females are expected to be passive and nurturing, which illustrates the concept of
a. sexual identity.

b. gender identity.

c. gender role.

d. biological role.

e. correct behavior.

gender role

19

What is Emile Durkheim's term for the social cohesion found in industrial societies, in which people perform very specialized tasks and feel united by their mutual dependence?


a. Mechanical solidarity

b. Status-oriented bonding

c. High-technology bonding

d. Organic solidarity

e. Bodily solidarity

d. Organic solidarity

20

In Herbert Gans' typology of urban dwellers, those who live in tightly knit neighborhoods that resemble small towns are

a. cosmopolites.

b. ethnic villagers.

c. yuppies.

d. buppies.

e. natives.

b. ethnic villagers.

21

A continuous concentration of two or more cities and their suburbs that have grown until they form an interconnected urban area is a
a. megalopolis.

b. central metropolitan area.

c. census district.

d. suburban complex.

e. coastal area.

megalopolis.

22

According to Robert Merton's strain theory, what occurs when people accept society's goals but adopt disapproved means for achieving them?

a. Conformity

b. Innovation

c. Rebellion

d. Ritualism

e. Retreatism

innovation

23

The statement "The greater the degree of social harm, the more the offender should be punished" reflects the principle of

a. retribution.

b. social protection.

c. rehabilitation.

d. deterrence.

e. restitution.

Retribution-which means the punishment fits the crime

24

People who are satisfied with their present condition are LESS likely to seek social change, according to the theory of

a. value-added.

b. resource mobilization.

c. functionalist.

d. relative deprivation.

e. symbolic interactionist.

relative deprivation- which means As peoples' expectations rise, they become dissatisfied if they believe they are not receiving their fair share, or if they think that change is not occurring quickly enough.

25

Voluntary, often spontaneous activity that is engaged in by a large number of people and that typically violates dominant group norms and values is
a. social change.

b. organizational behavior.

c. institutional behavior.

d. collective behavior.

e. conformity.

collective behavior.

26

The situation in which a teenage boy receives advice from his older sister about how to act on a first date is an example of
a. sociobiology.

b. acculturation.

c. socialization.

d. high self-esteem.

e. deskilling.

Socialization

27

The first U.S. departments of sociology were established atThe first U.S. departments of sociology were established at
a. Columbia University and Spellman College.

b. Harvard University and Yale University.

c. University of Chicago and Atlanta University.

d. Howard University and Brown University.

e. Princeton University and the University of Texas.

University of Chicago and Atlanta University

28

George Herbert Mead is one of the founders of the
a. conflict perspective.

b. symbolic interaction perspective.

c. functionalist perspective.

d. feminist perspective.

e. social control perspective.

symbolic interaction perspective.

29

The role of a health club or golf club as a meeting ground for people seeking new business contacts is an example of

a. a dialectical function.

b. a manifest function.

c. a latent function.

d. a dysfunction.

e. an opportunistic function.

Latent function

30

Latent function

is an unintended or hidden function of an institution or organization.