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Flashcards in Types Of Motor Learning Approaches Deck (47)
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Carr and Shepard motor relearning approach targets what?

Targets normal movement and how it is relearned after neurological insult


Carr and Shepard believed what?

That factors that are involved with learning are also involved with releasing and should include:

-identification of a goal
-inhibition of any unnecessary activity that does not relate to normal movement
-the ability to adjust during activity to the effects of gravity and balance
-proper body alignment
-proper motivation
-incorporate internal or mental practice as well as external or physical practice


Describe Carr and Shephard’s approach in a clinical setting.

-PT observation of the pt during examination in order to identify the variations in normal movement

-through critical assessment the PT identifies components of movement that are missing or abnormal and the corresponding interventions


Closed motor skill

Skill that is performed under a stable and unchanging environment


KR in Carr and Shepard

-Providing the pt with external FB regarding a pt’s performance of a task

-include observations as well as objective data and can be positive or negative in nature with the goal of influencing the learner


Open motor skill

Skill that is permed under a consistently changing environment


Transfer of learning

An action cannot be separated from the environment that it is performed in.

Patient must be able to transfer the skill or motor task into different environments


Who developed the neuromuscular developmental treatment (NDT) concept



What is the NDT concept ?

-Pt should learn to control movement through activities that promote normal movement patterns that integrate function

-based on a hierarchical model of neurophysiological function

-recognizes the interference of normal function within the brain caused by CNS dysfunction leads to a slowing down or cessation of motor development and inhibition of righting reactions, equilibrium reactions and automatic movements.


What new assumptions have been incorporated into NDT?

-Postural control can be learned and modified through experience

-Postural control uses both FB and feed-forward mechanisms for execution of tasks

-Postural control is initiated from a pt’s BOS

-Postural control is required for skill development

-Postural control develops by assuming progressive positions in which there is an increase in the distance b/t the COG and BOS; BOS should decrease



A technique utilized to elicit I voluntary muscular contraction



A technique utilized to decrease excessive tone or movment


Key points of control

Specific handling of designated areas of the body (shoulder, pelvis, hand and foot) will influence and facilitate posture, alignment and control



The act of moving an extremity into a position that the pt must hold against gravity


Reflex inhibiting posture

Designated static positions that bob that found to inhibit abnormal tonal influences and reflexes


Describe the Brunnstrom Concept of therapy in hemiplegia

-was believed to immediately practice synergy patterns and subsequently develop combinations of movement patterns outside of the Synergy

-Research has indicated that reinforced synergy patterns are very difficult to change (so this is rarely utilized today)


Brunnstorm’s 7 Stages of Recovery

Stage 1: no volitional movement initiated (Flaccidity)
Stage 2: the appearance of basic limb synergies. Spasticity begins
Stage 3: Synergies are performed voluntarily; Spasticity increases
Stage 4: Spasticity begins to decrease. Movement patterns are not dictated solely by limb synergies
Stage 5: Further decrease in spasticity is noted w/independence from Limb synergy patterns
Stage 6: Isolated joint movements are performed with coordination
Stage 7: normal motor function is restored


Associated reaction

Involuntary and automatic movment of a body part as ra euslt of an intestinal active or resistive movment in another body part


Homolateral synkinessis

A flexion pattern of the involved upper extremity facilitates flexion of the involved lower extremity


Limb synergies

A group of muscles that produce a predictable pattern of movement in flexion or extension


Raimiste’s phenomenon

Involved LE will abduct or adduct with applied resistance to the uninvolved LE in the same direction


Souques’ phenomenon

Raising the involved UE above 100 degrees with elbow extension will produce Extension and abduction of the fingers


Stages of recovery

Brunnstorm separates neurological recovery into seven separate stages based on progression through abnormal tone and spasticity. These 7 stages of recovery describe tone, reflex activity, and volitional movement


Who developed proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)?

-original goal of Tx was to establish gross motor patterns within the CNS

-based on the premise that stronger parts of the body are utilized to simulate and strengthen the weaker parts

-places great emphasis on manual constant and correct handling

-movement patterns follow Diagnosis or spirals that each posses a flexion, Extension and Rotator component and are directed toward or away from midline



Combination of bilateral UE asymmetrical patterns performed as a closed-chain activity


Developmental sequence

-Progression of motor skill acquisition

-stages of motor control include: mobility, stability, controlled mobility and skill


Mass movement patterns

The hip, knee, and ankle move into flexion or extension simultaneously



Muscle activation fo an involved extremity due to intense action of an uninvolved muscle or group of muscles


D1 UE flexion pattern

Scapula: Elevation, Abduction, Upward Rotation
Shoulder: Flexion, Adduction, ER
Elbow: flexion or extension
Radioulnar: Supination
Wrist: Flexion, Radial Deviation
Thumb: Adduction


D1 UE Extension Pattern

Scapula: Depression, adduction, Downward Rotation
Shoulder: Extension, abduction, IR
Elbow: flexion or extension
Radioulnar: Pronation
Wrist: Extension, Ulnar deviation
Thumb: Abduction