Flashcards in tumour classification Deck (60)
what do most tumour names include?
the suffix 'oma'
how do we subclassify tumours?
on a variety of things
benign or malignant
primary or secondary
histological origin - the tissue type that the tumour has originated from
why do we classify tumours?
it outlines treatment options
characterises the lesions behaviours
what are the four types of tissue and extra type that make up histological classification?
extra is marrow
what is the most common histological tissue origin?
what is epithelial tissue and an example?
it is the tissue that lines surfaces and an example is mesenchymal
what is connective tissue?
bone, cartilage, ligaments, tendons and fat
where do haematological malignancies arise from?
different components that make up the blood - marrow
how do we name benign epithelial tumours?
if it is secretory glandular then will be an ademona and if it is non secretory then is a papilloma
what are the types of simple epithelial cell?
simple squamous, cuboidal, columnar or pseudostratified
what are the types of stratified epithelial cell?
transitional, cuboidal, columnar, squamus or keratinised squamous
how would colonic crypts be identified in histology and why?
they are white spots and this is because they contain mucus too lubricate the stools
what is an example of a non secretory benign epithelial tumour?
skin lesions of squamous epithelium or urothelial cell
how are tumours then further identified from papilloma and adenoma?
the cell type of origin is identified - glandular tissue of origin for adenomas such as colonic or thyroid
why is a urothelial cell papilloma non secretory?
it is in the bladder but only stores urine does not secrete
what are malignant epithelial tumours?
carcinomas - secretory would be an adenocarcinoma
`why is it important to specify the epithelium of adenocarcinoma?
they can arise from glandular epithelium such as lung adenocarcinomas or colorectal
how do you name non glandular carcinomas?
specify the epithelial cell types such as basal cell carcinoma
what are the two most common types of epithelial carcinoma?
basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma
what is dysplasia?
it is disordered maturation and nuclei changes
what is a carcinoma in situ?
it is a carcinoma that has not invaded through the basement membrane but will invade if no treatment
what precedes carcinoma in situ?
dyplasia - becomes dysplastic before invasion
where is carcinoma in situ common?
in the cervix
how do we name mesenchymal tumours?
they are also 'omas' but with benign it will have a prefix of the tissue of origin and same with malignant but this is sarcomna
what are the prefixes for smooth and skeletal muscle, adipose, blood vessels, bone, cartilage and fibrous?
smooth - leiomyo
skeletal - rhabdomyo
adipose - lipo
blood vessels - angio
bone - osteo
cartilage - chondro
fibrous - fibro
what is a mole?
it is an exception to the naming rules - it is a benign melanocytic lesion/melanocytic naevus. There are many subtypes and most are benign but some do have malignant potential
what is another exception to naming rules?
malignant melanoma - this is in situ but cannot be left as is pre-invasive. It is dark, irregular and has different textures, and the melanoma is under the epidermis
what is a mesothelioma?
it is an exception to the naming rules - it is a tumour of the pleura that lines the lung. There is no benign counter parts and they are mainly fatal
what are common types of tumours the CNS?
meningioma (tumour in meninges lining the brain), glioma (in the glial supporting cells) and pituitary tumours