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Discuss the work on mortality ??

Landi et al (2013) showed that sarcopeniA was associated with a greater risk of mortality

Newman et al (2006) found that weaker quad + hand grip strength (dynapenia) were related to mortality over a 6 week period


Discuss Janssen et al (2000)??

Showed that acute disuse events punctuate the 'normal' progression of sarcopenia (e.g. A minor fall, surgery)


Discuss Suetta et al (2009)??

Showed an aggressive 4 week retraining period in old caused reasonable growth compared to if they did not have that retraining period.
In the young, they lost more after 2 weeks but gained more back in the same time frame.


Discuss the pathophysiology of sarcopenia (Narici and Maffili, 2010)???

Decrease in hormonal factors (e.g. ⬇️test), fibre CSA⬇️, inflammatory factors (⬆️IL6⬆️Tnf-a) and motor unit number ⬇️, fibre number ⬇️ all greatly affect sarcopenia


What did Breen and Phillips (2011) state about older muscles??

They become less responsive to low/moderate dose protein than young, and require at least 20g of high quality protein to stimulate MPS .


What did Moore et al (2014) consider the guidelines to be for elderly protein consumption??

Found that 0.4g/kg of protein is optimal for the elderly per meal, compared with 0.24g/kg for regular individuals


Discuss Campbell et al (2001) and Teiland et al (2011)???

Campbell - when older adults were fed a diet containing the protein RDA, muscle area and strength increased.

Tieland - many adults consume protein in a skewed distribution which may fail to maximise MPS stimulation.


How much protein did Bauer et al (2013) suggest??

Greater benefit may be seen especially with higher intakes, particularly during periods of disuss, 1-1.2g/kg/day has been suggested.


Discuss the anabolic resistance to exercise in older muscles??

In acute exercise, Kumar et al (2009) found MPS was 30% lower in the old vs young between 1-2 hrs post exercise, also s6K signalling was absent. Showed significantly greater p70S6K phosphorylation 1 hour post ex in young compared to old.

In chronic exercise Greig et al (2011) found relative hypertrophy and strength were greater in the young vs old following a 12 week protocol in women with 3 sessions a week of 4x15isometric MVC.


Discuss fry et al (2013)??

Partially contrasting kumar et al (2009), found no age-related differences in exercise induced muscle protein breakdown following an acute bout of res ex.


Discuss the work from Frontera (1988-2000) ??

Showed with a little exercise, a lot of sarcopenia can be reversed.
~25% strength loss in 12 years , ~15% strength gain in 12 weeks. A similar effect was seen for muscle CSA also.


Discuss Fiatarone et al (1990)???

Showed that even the frail old (90+) can benefit from resistance exercise.
Found an average 7.6kg to 19.3kg for 1RM strength over 8 weeks, alongside positive changes in muscle mass in quads and hamstrings.


Briefly characterise some of the symptoms of EIMD (Paulsen et al, 2012)???

Number of days where pain/soreness is at its peak:-

Eccentric exercise bout - ~3days
Anabolic signalling, MPS, inflammation, muscle function - ~1 days
3-ME excretion - ~10days following the bout

However, large individuals variations do occur depending on age and training status


Discuss Krentz et al (2008)??

Had subjects train 1 arm 5 days/week for 6 weeks whilst ingesting 400mg of ibuprofen or placebo immediately post training.

Showed hypertrophy was equivalent and soreness was not reduced with ibuprofen.


Discuss Trappe et al (2002)??

Found that following 10-14 sets of 10 reps, FSR was blunted when consuming 1200mg of ibuprofen or 4000mg of acetominophen compared to placebo - indicating a blunted MPS.


What did Burd et al (2009) find when giving subjects either 600mg of COX-2 inhibitor or placebo ??

Had subjects perform 10 sets of 10 reps.
Found that COX2 inhibitor may suppress injury induced muscle remodelling
- showed FSR was significantly higher pre-post for both.


Discuss the key NSAID data from Markworth et al (2013)??

See diagram for key information on everything.

Showed that NSAIDs may blunt post exercise anabolic signalling.
Subjects consumed 400mg of ibuprofen or placebo prior to resistance exercise and assessed mTORC1.
Argues that NSAIDs inhibit COX1 + COX2, but potentially inhibit MEK and PG's directly.

Results showed p-ERK1/2 was higher in placebo than ibuprofen at 0h, 3h and 24h.
Found p-p70S6K higher in placebo than ibuprofen at 3h
Found p-Mnk1 higher in placebo than ibuprofen at 0h and 3h.


Discuss Mikkelsen et al (2009)??

Found that NSAID's may blunt the exercise induced satellite cell response.
Had subjects perform 200 eccentric contractions with both legs
8 days post exercise, NSAID significantly lower than no block for Pax7+/myonuceli (%)


Discuss Parr et al (2014) looking at alcohol intake in humans??

Found that post workout alcohol intake (12 units) blunts muscle anabolic processes.
Protein alone group (25g) had a significantly higher FSR than ALC + PRO and ALC + CHO (25g) groups, following concurrent exercise (heavy load res ex then high intensity interval cycling)


Discuss Steiner and Lang (2014)?? Who looked at alcohol in mice.

Injected mice with ethanol or saline and then electrically stimulated the right hind limb.

Extracted the gastroc muscle at 30mins/4h or 12h post stimulation.
Protein synthesis (FSR) decreased in ethanol vs saline at all time points.
Finally, alcohol suppressed the increase in S6K phosphorylation (proxy of mTORC1 activation), that is typically induced by electrical stimulation.