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Flashcards in Toxicology Deck (23)
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1

most common route of occupational exposure

inhalation

2

most common route of exposure in poisonings

ingestion

3

Acute poisoning - think more...

cell death

4

chronic poisoning - think more...

chronic inflammation/wounding
cell proliferation

5

Linear model

(dose-response curve)

NO SAFE EXPOSURE!

ex. DNA damage

6

Threshold model

(dose-response curve)

Safe level = below threshold

Threshold = toxic S.E./Death

7

Hormetic Model

(dose-response curve)

Low levels = protective

Past threshold = toxic

8

Drug interaction risk factors

Age
Polypharmacy
Impaired elimination
narrow T.I.

9

Toxicity MOAs

*Receptor-ligand
*Membrane function change
*Block ATP formation
*Macromolecule interaction (protein, lipid, DNA = DAMAGE)
*Change Ca+ balance
*Free radicals

10

Benzene - DNA damage path

Phase 1 minor pathway

(MPO--> 1,4 Benzequinone)

11

acetaminophen - Hepatocyte death pathway

phase 1

12

produce proxidants?

*p450 metab in mitochondria
*reperfusion injury

13

Glutathione

antioxidant, gives electron/H (phase 2)

14

Paraquat

Herbicide
*pulm fibrosis (OH free radical)

15

Parathione

Organophosphate/Carbamate insecticide
*AchE enzyme inhibition (pulm)
*ANTIDOTE = Atropine Sulfate (anti-musc)

16

Methemoglobin

Hb Fe3+
*Nitrate exposure
*Methelyne blue (+methemoglobin reductase)

17

Cyanide

*block aerobic metab (cytochrome oxidase)
*ANTIDOTE =
1)amyl/sodium nitrate
(CN binds to Fe+++)
2)Hydroxycobalamin
(CN binds --> b12)
3) Sodium Thiosulfate

18

Arsenic

(ground water)

PV disease (black foot)

skin cancer

19

Cadmium

(ground water)

osteomalacia
Teste damage

20

Treatment for metal poisioning?

Succimer
(Dimercaptosuccinic Acid/DMSA)
-for lead/mercury
-only for Rx in PLASMA

21

Chelation sometimes can't block completely

*Stable complex = complete
*Basket complex = incomplete

22

Mercury

CNS toxicant
Methylmercury/dimethyl
*organic
*lethal (Dr. Wetterhahn)
*SH groups/selenium

23

Lead

CNS effects
mimics Ca/zinc =
Vit D synth
Heme synth
Detect = Venous level