Topic 9 - Animal Health Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 9 - Animal Health Deck (14)
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1

Describe how an animals body responds to disease (defence)

Non-specific defence:
1st line defence:
-skin, MM, urinary, patrolling cells, fever, inflamm (histamine)

2nd line:
-lymph sys, abscess
Specific defence:
-b cells & t cells

2

What do you do to monitor an animals health?

Observation
-distance & physical exam
-vitals, TPR
-diagnostics (bloods, urine, saliva, discharges)
-food & water intake

3

Describe what you would observe in a distance examination

Level of consciousness
Body condition
posture
mobility
conformation
discharges, injuries
behaviour normal/abnormal?
usual response to stimuli?
eat/drink/urinate/defecate/temperament normal?
odours

4

Describe what you would include in a physical examination

Head (face, eyes, ears, mouth, gums, teeth)
Front (neck, legs, chest, feet, nails)
middle (thorax, abdomen, back)
rear (legs, feet, nails, perineum, tail)

Specifics:
HR, RR, CRT, PR Temp, MM, skin/coat, weight/BC, hydration, discharges, anal glands, genitalia, lymph nodes

5

Describe the normal TPR for a cat

T = 38.6˚C
P (HR) = 110 - 140 bpm
R = 26 bpm

6

Describe the normal TPR for a dog

T = 38.8˚C
P = 100 - 130 bpm
R = 22 bpm

7

Describe the normal TPR for a horse

T = 37.7˚C
P = 23 - 70 bpm
R = 12 bpm

8

Describe the clinical signs a normal, healthy animal would display

keen reflexes w/ sharp response to stimuli
clear bright eyes w/ no discharge
clean, glossy coat w/ no evidence of matting or parasites
free movement
clear, yellow urine passes w/ out pain or difficulty
firm, brown faeces passed easily w/ no pain/difficulty
normal appetite/drinking
superficial lymph nodes should not be enlarged

9

Provide a summary of maintaining animal health

1. Quarantine new animals
2. maintain strict hygiene
3. provide optimum enviro cond.
4. provide shelter & absorbent/clean/safe bedding/flooring
5. provide optimum nutrition
6. Provide clean drinking water
7. " enviro enrichment
8. " psychological "
9. " correct social structure
10. practice preventative medicine
11. Adjust husbandry practices according to physiological status of animal
12. monitor, observe, examine
13. report any abnormalities & seek professional advice if necessary

10

What does it mean if MM are...
Pink?
Muddy/grey?
Brick red?
pale/white?
blue?
yellow?

Pink - normal
muddy/grey - poor perfusion
brick red - septic shock
pale/white - anemia or poor perfusion
blue - cyanosis, hypoxia (lack of O2)
yellow - jaundice (liver issues)

11

List the signs of pain in an animal (dog)

vocalising
salivation
guarding
self mutilation
dilated pupils
rigid muscles
changes in sleep/eat/defecate/urinate/drink

12

List the 4 kinds of pain

somatic (skin, bone, muscle, tendon)
visceral (internal organs)
neuropathic (nerve endings, spinal cord, brain)
referred (pain from organ results in pain elsewhere in body)

13

Describe the signs of acute pain

> RR, HR, BP
dilated pupils
vocalising
distressed

14

Describe the signs of chronic pain

Normal HR, RR, BO
reduced activity
depression