TOPIC 8: MEMORY Flashcards Preview

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1

Predominant view of memory

- a form of information processing; applies metaphor

- comprised of different structures (sensory, short-term, & long-term memories) and processes (encoding, storage, & retrieval)

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Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968):

The Modal Model

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1. Sensory Memory

Sperling (1960):
Part I:
Part II:

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part I:

flashed matrix of letters on screen for 50 ms:

- total recall rate: ~50%

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Part II:

matrix flashed on and off / delay / tone presented

- brief delay: tested recall for desired row ~100%

- accuracy declined as delay increased

- implied complete image was temporarily stored

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 Iconic memory

very accurate, very brief visual sensory memory

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echoic memory

auditory-based sensory memory

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2. Short-Term Memory (STM)

George Miller (1956): STM capacity

- measured with digit-span task - STM capacity = “The Magical Number seven, Plus or Minus Two”

However, more recent work (Baddeley, 1994; Cowan, 2001) puts practical STS capacity at four, plus or minus one.

- chunking

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 digit-span task

list of numbers presented; recite them in the order of presentation

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chunking

combining items into meaningful units reduces amount to be remembered
- applied in acronyms

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Peterson & Peterson (1959; also Brown, 1958)

STM duration
- subjects given three consonance and a three-digit number

- during retention interval, had to count backwards by 3s

- after a certain amount of time, recall the three letters

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results of the Peterson and Peterson

STM fades in less than 20 seconds without maintenance rehearsal

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maintenance rehearsal

repeating the stimuli
 

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Alan Baddeley (1976):

working memory view of STM emphasizes processing of memories

• phonological loop
• visuospatial sketchpad
• episodic buffer
• central executive

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phonological loop

stores sound-based information

- has phonological store & subvocal rehearsal process

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visuospatial sketchpad

for solving problems “in your head”

- has visual cache & inner scribe

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episodic buffer

temporary storage to/from LTM; also integrates information from other components

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Central executive

attentional control system

- for coordinating the other functions

- switches between tasks, storage or retrieval strategies

- also transfers memory to/from LTM

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Serial Position Effect

- shows functional division between STM and LTM
- primacy
- recency

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primacy

earlier words recalled (are in LTM); due to greater rehearsal (Atkinson & Schiffrin, 1971)?

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recency

later words recalled (are in STM); delaying test wipes out recency

- middle words may receive interference from both earlier and later words

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3. Long-Term Memory (LTM)

- capacity virtually unlimited

- duration may be unlimited--for some items, not all

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• Levels of Processing (Craik & Lockhart, 1972):

- gave participants list of words to remember
- different groups encoded words differently
• shallow encoding
• intermediate encoding
• deep encoding

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• shallow encoding

based on appearance

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• intermediate encoding

based on sound

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deep encoding

based on meaning

- deeper processing enhances encoding

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• elaborative rehearsal

- when encoding new memories, relate them to existing memories

- aids in memory consolidation

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memory consolidation

formation of long-term memories

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• self-reference effect

- the more meaningful some information is to you, the more likely you are to remember it

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• visual images

- words that form visual images remembered best (i.e., concrete nouns vs. abstract concepts)

- words that form visual images remembered best (i.e., concrete nouns vs. abstract concepts)

- explained by dual coding theory