Flashcards in Topic 8 - Anatomy and Physiology Deck (31)
Describe body organisation
Find a photo of a horse or dog. Describe the terms:
Describe cell structure
Cytoplasm contains organelles
Plasma membrane allows substances to pass through via diffusion (passive), osmosis, active transport, exocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis
Balanced cell fluid is 0.9% saline solution
Name and give examples of the 4 kinds of tissues
Epithelial -skin, gut lining, resp. tract
Connective -tendons, ligaments, adipose
Muscle -skeletal, smooth, cardiac
Name and describe the 2 layers of the skin
Epidermis -contains keratin and exocrine glands
Dermis -loose connective tissue well supplied w/ blood
What constitutes the skeletal system?
bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, muscles
Name the bones of the forelimb (use picture). What does it articulate with?
-articulates w/ scapula
Name the bones of the hindlimb (use picture). What does it articulate with?
-articulates w/ pelvis
periosteum -outside tough covering
epiphysis -far ends of bone
diaphysis -between epiphysis'
compact bone -made of osteocytes
Name the four basic types of joints
ball & socket
What do ligaments do?
allow joints to move in right direction & not too far in wrong direction
What do tendons do?
attach skeletal muscles to skeleton
Muscles only pull and work in antagonistic pairs. T or F?
What is flexion?
movement that reduces angle of joint
What is extension?
increases angle of joint
What does blood transport and do?
-defends from disease
=>plasma = water proteins CO2
=>WBC's = neutrophils destroy bacteria, eosinophils allergies & parasite infections
=>lymphocytes = antibodies
Describe the heart and a heart beat
valves prevent back flow (semilunar for ventricles)
Endocardium => myocardium => epicardium (inside)
1. blood flows R=>L atria
2. Atria contract, blood flows => ventricles
3. Ventricles contract, closing atrio-ventricular valves (1st sound)
4. Blood flows to lungs & body. When ventricles stop contracting closing of semilunar valves = 2nd sound
What does the upper airway consist of?
nostrils, nasal passages oral cavity, larynx, trachea
What does the lower airway consist of?
bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
Ribs move up & out, diaphragm flattens. Increased V of pleural cavity
passive process. relaxation of muscles & recoiling of elastic tissue
How is breathing rate determined?
High [CO2] = acidic blood
Acquired, humoral immunity involves which cell type?
B cells -antibodies
Cellular immunity involves which cell type?
T cells -cytotoxic, helper, suppresor
What is digested in the sml intestine?
fats, proteins, CHD. Villi increase SA
What is digested in the lrg intestine?
Consists of colon & caecum.
H2o absorption, some B1 & K vitamins produced, Cellulose breakdown
List the 6 nutritional requirements of animals
Name 3 digestive enzymes and what they catabolise
Name the components of the urinary system
kidneys - excrete urea, control H2O [ ], salt [ ], & blood acidity
regulated by hormones such as renin-angiotensin
proximal & distal convoluted tubule
loop of Henle