Topic 8 - Anatomy and Physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 8 - Anatomy and Physiology Deck (31)
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1

Describe body organisation

cells=>tissues=>organs=>systems

2

Find a photo of a horse or dog. Describe the terms:
Cranial
Caudal
Dorsal
Lateral
Ventral
Proximal
Distal
Palmar
Plantar
Medial
Rostral

...

3

Describe cell structure

Cytoplasm contains organelles

Plasma membrane allows substances to pass through via diffusion (passive), osmosis, active transport, exocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis

Balanced cell fluid is 0.9% saline solution

4

Name and give examples of the 4 kinds of tissues

Epithelial -skin, gut lining, resp. tract
Connective -tendons, ligaments, adipose
Muscle -skeletal, smooth, cardiac
Nervous -neurones

5

Name and describe the 2 layers of the skin

Epidermis -contains keratin and exocrine glands
Dermis -loose connective tissue well supplied w/ blood

6

What constitutes the skeletal system?

bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, muscles

7

Name the bones of the forelimb (use picture). What does it articulate with?

humerus
radius
ulna
carpals
metacarpals
phalanges
-articulates w/ scapula

8

Name the bones of the hindlimb (use picture). What does it articulate with?

Femur
patella
tibia
fibula
tarsals
metatarsals
digits
-articulates w/ pelvis

9

Describe bones
-periosteum
-epiphysis
-diaphysis
-compact bone

periosteum -outside tough covering
epiphysis -far ends of bone
diaphysis -between epiphysis'
compact bone -made of osteocytes
spongy bone
red/yellow marrow

10

Name the four basic types of joints

saddle
hinge
ball & socket
plane

11

What do ligaments do?

allow joints to move in right direction & not too far in wrong direction

12

What do tendons do?

attach skeletal muscles to skeleton

13

Muscles only pull and work in antagonistic pairs. T or F?

True

14

What is flexion?

movement that reduces angle of joint

15

What is extension?

increases angle of joint

16

What does blood transport and do?

Oxygen
nutrients
waste
-maintains homeostasis
-defends from disease
=>plasma = water proteins CO2
=>WBC's = neutrophils destroy bacteria, eosinophils allergies & parasite infections
=>lymphocytes = antibodies

17

Describe the heart and a heart beat

4 chambers
valves prevent back flow (semilunar for ventricles)
Endocardium => myocardium => epicardium (inside)
HB:
1. blood flows R=>L atria
2. Atria contract, blood flows => ventricles
3. Ventricles contract, closing atrio-ventricular valves (1st sound)
4. Blood flows to lungs & body. When ventricles stop contracting closing of semilunar valves = 2nd sound

18

What does the upper airway consist of?

nostrils, nasal passages oral cavity, larynx, trachea

19

What does the lower airway consist of?

bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli

20

Describe inspiration

Ribs move up & out, diaphragm flattens. Increased V of pleural cavity

21

Describe expiration

passive process. relaxation of muscles & recoiling of elastic tissue

22

How is breathing rate determined?

[CO2]
High [CO2] = acidic blood

23

Acquired, humoral immunity involves which cell type?

B cells -antibodies

24

Cellular immunity involves which cell type?

T cells -cytotoxic, helper, suppresor

25

What is digested in the sml intestine?

fats, proteins, CHD. Villi increase SA

26

What is digested in the lrg intestine?

Consists of colon & caecum.
H2o absorption, some B1 & K vitamins produced, Cellulose breakdown

27

List the 6 nutritional requirements of animals

Water
Protein
Fat
CHD
Minerals
Vitamins

28

Name 3 digestive enzymes and what they catabolise

Trypsin -protein
Lipase -lipid
Amylase -starch

29

Name the components of the urinary system

kidneys - excrete urea, control H2O [ ], salt [ ], & blood acidity
regulated by hormones such as renin-angiotensin

Consist of:
glomerulus
bowman's capsule
proximal & distal convoluted tubule
loop of Henle
collecting duct

30

Describe the organisation of the nervous system

somatic NS - voluntary, input - sense organs, output- skeletal muscle

autonomic NS - invol, I: internal receptors, O: smooth muscl
=> sympathetic MS -fight or flight, noradrenaline
=> parasympathetic MS -rest & digest, acetylcholine